12 Main Principles of Growth and Development of Children
The reports were shared at the World Health Assembly. 6-7 November 2014 – Close to 100 high level representatives from governments, civil society, and international organizations have gathered in Geneva for two days to reaffirm their commitment to accelerating progress towards women’s and children’s health in the lead up to and in the post-2015 era, and to discuss how to ensure that accountability remains at the centre 12 Main Principles of Growth and Development of Children this agenda. Governments of Canada and Norway, is the last one of a number of high- level meetings convened by various key partners in 2014, all part of a larger strategic process aimed at bringing together stakeholders in women’s and children’s health to keep the momentum going and set the agenda as we approach the MDGs. MDGs 4 and 5, aimed at reducing child and maternal deaths and improving maternal health, are lagging behind.
We should judge the progress in humanity and the progress of any society or country by the way they treat their women and children. They have been lagging behind in the last 20 to 30 years of development. We should give them special attention. Dr Flavia Bustreo about the need to further accelerate progress. Country assessments and roadmaps for accountability for health. Assessments drafted during accountability workshops, based on the Country Accountability Framework assessment and planning tool, and roadmaps reviewed and validated through a broad consultation with the major stakeholders in-country.
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Human energy requirements are estimated from measures of energy expenditure plus the additional energy needs for growth, pregnancy and lactation. Recommendations for dietary energy intake from food must satisfy these requirements for the attainment and maintenance of optimal health, physiological function and well-being. When energy balance is maintained over a prolonged period, an individual is considered to be in a steady state. This can include short periods during which the day-to-day balance between intake and expenditure does not occur. Energy balance is maintained, and a new steady state is then achieved.
Furthermore, dietary energy needs and recommendations cannot be considered in isolation of other nutrients in the diet, as the lack of one will influence the others. Thus, the following definitions are based on the assumption that requirements for energy will be fulfilled through the consumption of a diet that satisfies all nutrient needs. Energy requirement is the amount of food energy needed to balance energy expenditure in order to maintain body size, body composition and a level of necessary and desirable physical activity consistent with long-term good health. This includes the energy needed for the optimal growth and development of children, for the deposition of tissues during pregnancy, and for the secretion of milk during lactation consistent with the good health of mother and child. The recommended level of dietary energy intake for a population group is the mean energy requirement of the healthy, well-nourished individuals who constitute that group.
Based on these definitions, a main objective for the assessment of energy requirements is the prescription of dietary energy intakes that are compatible with long-term good health. Therefore, the levels of energy intake recommended by this expert consultation are based on estimates of the requirements of healthy, well-nourished individuals. It is recognized that some populations have particular public health characteristics that are part of their usual, “normal” life. Energy requirements and recommended levels of intake are often referred to as daily requirements or recommended daily intakes. These terms are used as a matter of convention and convenience, indicating that the requirement represents an average of energy needs over a certain number of days, and that the recommended energy intake is the amount of energy that should be ingested as a daily average over a certain period of time.
Estimates of energy requirements are derived from measurements of individuals. Measurements of a collection of individuals of the same gender and similar age, body size and physical activity are grouped together to give the average energy requirement – or recommended level of dietary intake – for a class of people or a population group. It is assumed that individual requirements are randomly distributed about the mean requirement for the class of individuals, and that the distribution is Gaussian. For most specific nutrients, a certain excess of intake will not be harmful. Thus, when dietary recommendations are calculated for these nutrients, the variation among individuals in a class or population group is taken into account, and the recommended level of intake is an amount that will meet or exceed the requirements of practically all individuals in the group. Individuals are randomly selected among a class of people or a population group.
The two probability curves overlap, so the level of energy intake that assures a low probability of dietary energy deficiency is the same level that implies a high probability of obesity owing to dietary energy excess. After food is ingested, its chemical energy is released and converted into thermic, mechanical and other forms of energy. This report refers to energy requirements that must be satisfied with an adequately balanced diet, and does not make specific recommendations for carbohydrates, fats or proteins. Reports from other FAO and WHO expert groups address those topics.
Nevertheless, it should be noted that fats and carbohydrates are the main sources of dietary energy, although proteins also provide important amounts of energy, especially when total dietary energy intake is limited. Eating requires energy for the ingestion and digestion of food, and for the absorption, transport, interconversion, oxidation and deposition of nutrients. These metabolic processes increase heat production and oxygen consumption, and are known by terms such as dietary-induced thermogenesis, specific dynamic action of food and thermic effect of feeding. This is the most variable and, after BMR, the second largest component of daily energy expenditure. Humans perform obligatory and discretionary physical activities.
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Obligatory activities can seldom be avoided within a given setting, and they are imposed on the individual by economic, cultural or societal demands. Discretionary activities, although not socially or economically essential, are important for health, well-being and a good quality of life in general. The energy cost of growth is about 35 percent of total energy requirement during the first three months of age, falls rapidly to about 5 percent at 12 months and about 3 percent in the second year, remains at 1 to 2 percent until mid-adolescence, and is negligible in the late teens. During pregnancy, extra energy is needed for the growth of the foetus, placenta and various maternal tissues, such as in the uterus, breasts and fat stores, as well as for changes in maternal metabolism and the increase in maternal effort at rest and during physical activity. Well-nourished lactating women can derive part of this additional requirement from body fat stores accumulated during pregnancy. Among these, individually calibrated heart rate monitoring has been successfully validated.
Using these methods, measurements of total energy expenditure over a 24-hour period include the metabolic response to food and the energy cost of tissue synthesis. When experimental data on total energy expenditure are not available, it can be estimated by factorial calculations based on the time allocated to activities that are performed habitually and the energy cost of those activities. Factorial calculations combine two or more components or “factors”, such as the sum of the energy spent while sleeping, resting, working, doing social or discretionary household activities, and in leisure. As discussed in the following sections of this report, the experimental measurement of total energy expenditure and the assessment of growth and tissue composition allow sound predictions to be made regarding energy requirements and dietary recommendations for infants and older children around the world. Special considerations and additional calculations assist the formulation of recommendations for children and adolescents with diverse lifestyles. Total energy expenditure has also been measured in groups of adults, but this has been primarily in industrialized countries.
Variations in body size, body composition and habitual physical activity among populations of different geographical, cultural and economic backgrounds make it difficult to apply the published results on a worldwide basis. Thus, in order to account for differences in body size and composition, energy requirements were initially calculated as multiples of BMR. The extra needs for pregnancy and lactation were also calculated using factorial estimates for the growth of maternal and foetal tissues, the metabolic changes associated with pregnancy and the synthesis and secretion of milk during lactation. In tables, values for kilocalories are given in italic type.
Gender, age and body weight are the main determinants of total energy expenditure. Thus, energy requirements are presented separately for each gender and various age groups, and are expressed both as energy units per day and energy per kilogram of body weight. As body size and composition also influence energy expenditure, and are closely related to basal metabolism, requirements are also expressed as multiples of BMR. 5 Recommendations for physical activityA certain amount of activity must be performed regularly in order to maintain overall health and fitness, to achieve energy balance and to reduce the risk of developing obesity and associated diseases, most of which are associated with a sedentary lifestyle. The minimal rate of energy expenditure compatible with life. It is measured in the supine position under standard conditions of rest, fasting, immobility, thermoneutrality and mental relaxation.
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Depending on its use, the rate is usually expressed per minute, per hour or per 24 hours. The indicator of weight adequacy in relation to height of older children, adolescents and adults. The acceptable range for adults is 18. 9, and for children it varies with age.
The amount of food energy needed to balance energy expenditure in order to maintain body size, body composition and a level of necessary and desirable physical activity, and to allow optimal growth and development of children, deposition of tissues during pregnancy, and secretion of milk during lactation, consistent with long-term good health. For healthy, well-nourished adults, it is equivalent to total energy expenditure. A method to measure the daily energy expenditure of free-living individuals, based on the relationship of heart rate and oxygen consumption and on minute-by-minute monitoring of heart rate. The energy spent, on average, in a 24-hour period by an individual or a group of individuals. By definition, it reflects the average amount of energy spent in a typical day, but it is not the exact amount of energy spent each and every day.
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In adult men and non-pregnant, non-lactating women, BMR times PAL is equal to TEE or the daily energy requirement. BMR, for the selected time unit. Food energy – methods of analysis and conversion factors. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper No.
A manual for planners and nutritionists. Oxford, UK, Oxford Medical Publications under arrangement with FAO. Physical status: The use and interpretation of anthropometry. Report of a WHO expert committee. Fitness can generally be described as the ability to perform moderate to vigorous physical activity without becoming excessively tired.
Special used in the psychological study of infants. One of the many experiments used for children. Developmental psychology is the scientific study of how and why human beings change over the course of their life. Developmental psychology examines the influences of nature and nurture on the process of human development, and processes of change in context and across time. Watson and Jean-Jacques Rousseau are typically cited as providing the foundations for modern developmental psychology. There are many theorists that have made a profound contribution to this area of psychology. For example, Erik Erikson developed a model of eight stages of psychological development.
Sigmund Freud believed that we all had a conscious, preconscious, and unconscious level. In the conscious, we are aware of our mental process. The preconscious involves information that, though not currently in our thoughts, can be brought into consciousness. Lastly, the unconscious includes mental processes we are unaware of. He believed there is tension between the conscious and unconscious because the conscious tries to hold back what the unconscious tries to express. To explain this he developed three personality structures: the id, ego, and superego. The id, the most primitive of the three, functions according to the pleasure principle: seek pleasure and avoid pain.
Based on this, he proposed five universal stages of development, that each is characterized by the erogenous zone that is the source of the child’s psychosexual energy. The first is the oral stage, which occurs from birth to 12 months of age. During the oral stage, “the libido is centered in a baby’s mouth. The baby is able to suck. The second is the anal stage, from one to three years of age.
Piaget claimed that logic and morality develop through constructive stages. Expanding on Piaget’s work, Lawrence Kohlberg determined that the process of moral development was principally concerned with justice, and that it continued throughout the individual’s lifetime. The pre-conventional moral reasoning is typical of children and is characterized by reasoning that is based on rewards and punishments associated with different courses of action. Conventional moral reason occurs during late childhood and early adolescence and is characterized by reasoning based on rules and conventions of society.
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Kohlberg used the Heinz Dilemma to apply to his stages of moral development. The Heinz Dilemma involves Heinz’s wife dying from cancer and Heinz having the dilemma to save his wife by stealing a drug. Preconventional morality, conventional morality, and post-conventional morality applies to Heinz’s situation. German-American psychologist Erik Erikson and his collaborator and wife, Joan Erikson, conceptualized eight stages of psychosocial development that they theorized healthy individuals pass through as they develop from infancy to adulthood. The first stage is called “Trust vs.
Jean Piaget, a Swiss theorist, posited that children learn by actively constructing knowledge through hands-on experience. He suggested that the adult’s role in helping the child learn was to provide appropriate materials that the child can interact with and use to construct. Piaget believed that intellectual development takes place through a series of stages, which he described in his theory on cognitive development. Each stage consists of steps the child must master before moving to the next step. He believed that these stages are not separate from one another, but rather that each stage builds on the previous one in a continuous learning process. Michael Commons enhanced and simplified of Inhelder and Piaget’s developmental and offers a standard method of examining the universal pattern of development. It divides the Order of Hierarchical Complexity of tasks to be addressed from the Stage performance on those tasks.
In the MHC, there are three main axioms for an order to meet in order for the higher order task to coordinate the next lower order task. Axioms are rules that are followed to determine how the MHC orders actions to form a hierarchy. Ecological systems theory, originally formulated by Urie Bronfenbrenner, specifies four types of nested environmental systems, with bi-directional influences within and between the systems. The four systems are microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem. Each system contains roles, norms and rules that can powerfully shape development.
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Since its publication in 1979, Bronfenbrenner’s major statement of this theory, The Ecology of Human Development has had widespread influence on the way psychologists and others approach the study of human beings and their environments. Constructivism is a paradigm in psychology that characterizes learning as a process of actively constructing knowledge. Individuals create meaning for themselves or make sense of new information by selecting, organizing, and integrating information with other knowledge, often in the context of social interactions. Constructivism can occur in two ways: individual and social.
Jean Piaget, a Swiss developmental psychologist, proposed that learning is an active process because children learn through experience and make mistakes and solve problems. Piaget proposed that learning should be whole by helping students understand that meaning is constructed. Evolutionary developmental psychology is a research paradigm that applies the basic principles of Darwinian evolution, particularly natural selection, to understand the development of human behavior and cognition. Attachment theory, originally developed by John Bowlby, focuses on the importance of open, intimate, emotionally meaningful relationships.
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Attachment is described as a biological system or powerful survival impulse that evolved to ensure the survival of the infant. Theorists have proposed four types of attachment styles: secure, anxious-avoidant, anxious-resistant, and disorganized. A child can be hindered in its natural tendency to form attachments. Some babies are raised without the stimulation and attention of a regular caregiver or locked away under conditions of abuse or extreme neglect.
The possible short-term effects of this deprivation are anger, despair, detachment, and temporary delay in intellectual development. Attachment style can impact the relationships between people. Attachment is established in early childhood and attachment continues into adulthood. An example of secure attachment continuing in adulthood would be when the person feels confident and is able to meet their own needs. An example of anxious attachment during adulthood is when the adult chooses a partner with anxious-avoidant attachment. This section needs additional citations for verification. A significant issue in developmental psychology is the relationship between innateness and environmental influence in regard to any particular aspect of development.
This is often referred to as “nature and nurture” or nativism versus empiricism. An empiricist perspective would argue that those processes are acquired in interaction with the environment. One area where this innateness debate has been prominently portrayed is in research on language acquisition. A major question in this area is whether or not certain properties of human language are specified genetically or can be acquired through learning. The nativist position argues that the input from language is too impoverished for infants and children to acquire the structure of language. Linguist Noam Chomsky asserts that, evidenced by the lack of sufficient information in the language input, there is a universal grammar that applies to all human languages and is pre-specified. Since theorists believe that development is a smooth, continuous process, individuals gradually add more of the same types of skills throughout their lives.
Other theorists, however, think that development takes place in discontinuous stages. People change rapidly and step up to a new level, and then change very little for a while. With each new step, the person shows interest and responds to the world qualitatively. This issue involves the degree to which we become older renditions of our early experience or whether we develop into something different from who we were at an earlier point in development. Most lifespan developmentalists, recognise that extreme positions are unwise. Developmental psychology is concerned not only with describing the characteristics of psychological change over time but also seeks to explain the principles and internal workings underlying these changes.
Psychologists have attempted to better understand these factors by using models. A model must simply account for the means by which a process takes place. This is sometimes done in reference to changes in the brain that may correspond to changes in behavior over the course of the development. Cognitive development is primarily concerned with the ways that infants and children acquire, develop, and use internal mental capabilities such as:problem-solving, memory, and language. Major topics in cognitive development are the study of language acquisition and the development of perceptual and motor skills. Piaget was one of the influential early psychologists to study the development of cognitive abilities.
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Other accounts, such as that of Lev Vygotsky, have suggested that development does not progress through stages, but rather that the developmental process that begins at birth and continues until death is too complex for such structure and finality. Rather, from this viewpoint, developmental processes proceed more continuously. Thus, development should be analyzed, instead of treated as a product to obtain. Warner Schaie has expanded the study of cognitive development into adulthood. Rather than being stable from adolescence, Schaie sees adults as progressing in the application of their cognitive abilities.
Modern cognitive development has integrated the considerations of cognitive psychology and the psychology of individual differences into the interpretation and modeling of development. Developmental psychologists who are interested in social development examine how individuals develop social and emotional competencies. For example, they study how children form friendships, how they understand and deal with emotions, and how identity develops. Research in this area may involve study of the relationship between cognition or cognitive development and social behavior. Emotional regulation or ER refers to an individual’s ability to modulate emotional responses across a variety of contexts.
In young children, this modulation is in part controlled externally, by parents and other authority figures. As children develop, they take on more and more responsibility for their internal state. Music also has a huge influence on stimulating and enhancing the senses of a child through self-expression. A child’s social and emotional development can be disrupted by motor coordination problems as evidenced by the environmental stress hypothesis. Social and emotional development focuses on 5 keys areas: Self-Awareness, Self Management, Social Awareness, Relationship Skills and Responsible Decision Making.
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Physical development concerns the physical maturation of an individual’s body until it reaches the adult stature. Although physical growth is a highly regular process, all children differ tremendously in the timing of their growth spurts. A few other studies and practices with physical developmental psychology are the phonological abilities of mature 5- to 11-year-olds, and the controversial hypotheses of left-handers being maturationally delayed compared to right-handers. A study by Eaton, Chipperfield, Ritchot, and Kostiuk in 1996 found in three different samples that there was no difference between right- and left-handers. Researchers interested in memory development look at the way our memory develops from childhood and onward. According to Fuzzy-trace theory, we have two separate memory processes: verbatim and gist. These two traces begin to develop at different times as well as at a different pace.
Developmental psychology employs many of the research methods used in other areas of psychology. However, infants and children cannot be tested in the same ways as adults, so different methods are often used to study their development. Developmental psychologists have a number of methods to study changes in individuals over time. These methods differ in the extent of control researchers impose on study conditions, and how they construct ideas about which variables to study. Every developmental investigation can be characterized in terms of whether its underlying strategy involves the experimental, correlational, or case study approach.