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Richard Stallman – Fête de l’Humanité 2014 – 010. New York City, New York, U. American free software movement activist and programmer. He campaigns for software to be distributed in a manner such that its users receive the freedoms to use, study, distribute and modify that software. Stallman launched the GNU Project in September 1983 to create a Unix-like computer operating system composed entirely of free software. With this, he also launched the free software movement.

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In 1989 he co-founded the League for Programming Freedom. Stallman was born to Alice Lippman, a school teacher, and Daniel Stallman, a printing press broker, in 1953 in New York City. Stallman had a difficult relationship with his parents, as his father had a drinking habit and verbally abused his stepmother. He later came to describe his parents as “tyrants”. His first experience with actual computers was at the IBM New York Scientific Center when he was in high school. He was hired for the summer in 1970, following his senior year of high school, to write a numerical analysis program in Fortran.

As a first-year student at Harvard University in fall 1970, Stallman was known for his strong performance in Math 55. He was happy: “For the first time in my life, I felt I had found a home at Harvard. Stallman considered staying on at Harvard, but instead he decided to enroll as a graduate student at MIT. He pursued a doctorate in physics for one year, but left that program to focus on his programming at the MIT AI Laboratory. 1977 on an AI truth maintenance system, called dependency-directed backtracking. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the hacker culture that Stallman thrived on began to fragment. To prevent software from being used on their competitors’ computers, most manufacturers stopped distributing source code and began using copyright and restrictive software licenses to limit or prohibit copying and redistribution.

When Brian Reid in 1979 placed time bombs in the Scribe markup language and word processing system to restrict unlicensed access to the software, Stallman proclaimed it “a crime against humanity”. In 1980, Stallman and some other hackers at the AI Lab were refused access to the source code for the software of a newly installed laser printer, the Xerox 9700. Richard Greenblatt, a fellow AI Lab hacker, founded Lisp Machines, Inc. Lisp machines, which he and Tom Knight designed at the lab. Stallman argues that software users should have the freedom to share with their neighbors and be able to study and make changes to the software that they use. He maintains that attempts by proprietary software vendors to prohibit these acts are antisocial and unethical.

In February 1984, Stallman quit his job at MIT to work full-time on the GNU project, which he had announced in September 1983. Since then, he has remained affiliated with MIT as an unpaid visiting scientist in the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. Stallman announced the plan for the GNU operating system in September 1983 on several ARPANET mailing lists and USENET. Stallman started the project on his own and describes: “As an operating system developer, I had the right skills for this job. So even though I could not take success for granted, I realized that I was elected to do the job.

I chose to make the system compatible with Unix so that it would be portable, and so that Unix users could easily switch to it. In 1985, Stallman published the GNU Manifesto, which outlined his motivation for creating a free operating system called GNU, which would be compatible with Unix. In 1991, Linus Torvalds, a Finnish student, used the GNU’s development tools to produce the free monolithic Linux kernel. The existing programs from the GNU project were readily ported to run on the resultant platform. Stallman’s influences on hacker culture include the name POSIX and the Emacs editor. On Unix systems, GNU Emacs’s popularity rivaled that of another editor vi, spawning an editor war.

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In 1992, developers at Lucid Inc. Emacs clashed with Stallman and ultimately forked the software into what would become XEmacs. There’s something comforting about Stallman’s intransigence. Win or lose, Stallman will never give up.

He’ll be the stubbornest mule on the farm until the day he dies. Call it fixity of purpose, or just plain cussedness, his single-minded commitment and brutal honesty are refreshing in a world of spin-meisters and multimillion-dollar marketing campaigns. Stallman has written many essays on software freedom, and has been an outspoken political campaigner for the free software movement since the early 1990s. Linus Torvalds has criticized Stallman for what he considers “black-and-white thinking”.

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Stallman’s staunch advocacy for free software inspired the creation of the Virtual Richard M. Linux system, and reports those that are from the non-free tree. Stallman disagrees with parts of Debian’s definition of free software. In 1999, Stallman called for development of a free online encyclopedia through the means of inviting the public to contribute articles. Stallman is a world traveler and has visited at least 65 countries, mostly to speak about free software and the GNU project. According to Stallman, the free software movement has much in common with that of Mahatma Gandhi.

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In meetings with Hugo Chávez and in public speeches, Stallman criticised some policies on television broadcasting, free speech rights, and privacy. In August 2006, at his meetings with the government of the Indian State of Kerala, he persuaded officials to discard proprietary software, such as Microsoft’s, at state-run schools. This has resulted in a landmark decision to switch all school computers in 12,500 high schools from Windows to a free software operating system. After personal meetings, Stallman obtained positive statements about the free software movement from the then-president of India, Dr. On November 30, 2012, Stallman gave the opening lecture at the Goiano Free Software Forum in Brazil, talking about successful cases of switching to free software in government, business and at universities.

Protesting against proprietary software in April 2006, Stallman held a “Don’t buy from ATI, enemy of your freedom” placard at a speech by an ATI representative in the building where Stallman worked, resulting in the police being called. Stallman has characterized Steve Jobs as having a “malign influence” on computing because of Jobs’ leadership in guiding Apple to produce closed platforms. As Chicago Mayor Harold Washington said of the corrupt former Mayor Daley, “I’m not glad he’s dead, but I’m glad he’s gone. Stallman’s remark stirred up accusations of being in bad taste, while Eric S. Raymond, author of The Cathedral and the Bazaar, observed that Stallman’s statement was not personal, but was simply criticizing walled gardens. For a period of time, Stallman used a notebook from the One Laptop per Child program. Stallman has regularly given a talk entitled “Copyright vs.

Community” where he reviews the state of DRM and names many of the products and corporations which he boycotts. His approach to DRM is best summed up by the FSF Defective by Design campaign. In the talks, he makes proposals for a “reduced copyright” and suggests a 10-year limit on copyright. Stallman has also helped and supported the International Music Score Library Project in getting back on-line, after it had been taken down on October 19, 2007 following a cease and desist letter from Universal Edition. Stallman mentions the dangers some e-books bring compared to paper books, with the example of the Amazon Kindle e-reader that prevents the copying of e-books and allows Amazon to order automatic deletion of a book. Stallman discourages the use of several storage technologies such as DVD or Blu-ray video discs because the content of such media is encrypted.

He recognized the Sony BMG copy protection rootkit scandal to be a criminal act by Sony. Stallman supports a general boycott of Sony for its legal actions against George Hotz. Richard Stallman using his Lemote machine at Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai before his lecture on ‘Free Software, Freedom and Education’ organized by Free Software Foundation, Tamil Nadu. Stallman has suggested that the United States government may encourage the use of software as a service because this would allow them to access users’ data without needing a search warrant. He denies being an anarchist despite his wariness of some legislation and the fact that he has “advocated strongly for user privacy and his own view of software freedom”. To any NSA and FBI agents reading my email: please consider whether defending the US Constitution against all enemies, foreign or domestic, requires you to follow Snowden’s example. Richard Stallman in costume as St.

Stallman places great importance on the words and labels people use to talk about the world, including the relationship between software and freedom. Stallman argues that the term “intellectual property” is designed to confuse people, and is used to prevent intelligent discussion on the specifics of copyright, patent, trademark, and other laws by lumping together areas of law that are more dissimilar than similar. These laws originated separately, evolved differently, cover different activities, have different rules, and raise different public policy issues. Copyright law was designed to promote authorship and art, and covers the details of a work of authorship or art. His requests that people use certain terms, and his ongoing efforts to convince people of the importance of terminology, are a source of regular misunderstanding and friction with parts of the free software and open source communities. Thus, he believes that the use of the term will not inform people of the freedom issues, and will not lead to people valuing and defending their freedom.


Two alternatives which Stallman does accept are software libre and unfettered software, but free software is the term he asks people to use in English. Linux, which he pronounces “GNU slash Linux”, be used to refer to the operating system created by combining the GNU system and the Linux kernel. Stallman refers to this operating system as “a variant of GNU, and the GNU Project is its principal developer”. Stallman has said that he is “an atheist of Jewish ancestry” and often wears a button that reads “Impeach God”. Stallman refers to mobile phones as “portable surveillance and tracking devices”, and says he refuses to own a cell phone until there’s one that runs entirely on free software. He has urged others to not have children, viewing it as objectionable for reasons centered on family tensions and overpopulation. EMACS: The Extensible, Customizable, Self-Documenting Display Editor.

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Cambridge Massachusetts: MIT: MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory publication. GNU Make: A Program for Directed Compilation. Free Software, Free Society: Selected Essays of Richard M. First edition of “The Hacker’s Dictionary”. Multics Emacs: The History, Design and Implementation”. Make Your Open Source Software GPL-Compatible.

Free as in Freedom: Richard Stallman’s Crusade for Free Software. Q: You once said “the prospect of charging money for software was a crime against humanity. A: Well, I was not distinguishing the two meanings of free. I now have a truly compatible pair of programs which can convert a file of texinfo format documentation into either a printed manual or an Info file. Documentation files are needed for many utilities.

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February 1986, GNU’S BULLETIN, Volume 1 No. Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution. The Daemon, the GNU and the Penguin- by Peter H. History of the Open Source Initiative”. Why I think RMS is a fanatic, and why that matters”.

Linux and a free society” article by Takver Sunday October 10, 2004 on Melbourne Indymedia site. St IGNUcius web page at www. Archived from the original on December 12, 2009. GNU General Public License, version 3″. 221807 – “vrms and RMS disagree sometimes AND depends on non-free section presence” – Debian Bug report logs”.

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Chavez TV beams into South America”. Archived from the original on December 8, 2006. Richard Stallman Meets the President of India”. Archived from the original on October 16, 2007.

Meeting between Ségolène Royal and Richard Stallman”. Success for free software in Latin America! Richard Stallman estará lá – Diolinux – Notícias, Tutoriais e Games para Linux”. Protest in Brussels against software patents”. Protest outside and inside MPAA meeting on DRM”. Archived from the original on August 3, 2002. Protest against ATI nearly led to the arrest of RMS”.

AMD will deliver open graphics drivers”. 5 – GNU Project – Free Software Foundation”. 18 – GNU Project – Free Software Foundation”. Stallman: Jobs exerted ‘malign influence’ on computing”. I hate to have to play this role with a fellow hacker, but” Clisp. Archived from the original on April 10, 2016.

What do people use to get the job done? Richard Stallman has his bag stolen in Argentina”. Linux Meeting 2014: Richard Stallman è approdato a Palermo”. Technology should help us share, not constrain us”. La ‘ley Sinde’ es tan injusta que debería ser desobedecida”. Richard Stallman Opts to Disobey Anti-Piracy Law”.

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Archived from the original on 2008-04-15. Google’s ChromeOS means losing control of data, warns GNU founder Richard Stallman”. It’s not a matter of serving a subpoena. They have an interface that they have developed for U. Stallman joins the Internet, talks net neutrality, patents and more”.

Richard Stallman: surveillance is incompatible with democracy”. Leader of the Free World, Wired Magazine, Issue 11. Linux, GNU, Freedom by Richard M. Transcript of Richard Stallman speaking on GPLv3 in Torino”. Everyone who uses the term intellectual property is either confused himself or trying to confuse you.

It’s a Seductive Mirage by Richard M. Archived from the original on April 12, 2014. Because They Are Loaded or Confusing”. A Rare Glimpse into Richard Stallman’s World”.

Real men don’t attack straw men”. Richard Stallman: Apple fanboys are foolish people”. Why It Is Important Not to Have Children”. Archived from the original on November 2, 2012. Event details: Talk by Richard rms Stallman”. Archived March 7, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. EFF: Torvalds, Stallman, Simons Win 1998 Pioneer Awards”.

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WWW8 Notes: Open-Source Software and Software Patents”. Archived from the original on August 16, 2000. Enter the terms you wish to search for. Swearing Can Enhance Your Pain Tolerance! Thinking Outside the Box: A Misguided Idea The truth behind the universal, but flawed, catchphrase for creativity.