Body Movement and Space
This page has been archived and is no body Movement and Space updated. Find out more about page archiving. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. A change in the location of troops, ships, or aircraft for tactical or strategic purposes.
A series of actions and events taking place over a period of time and working to foster a principle or policy: a movement toward world peace. An organized effort by supporters of a common goal: a leader of the labor movement. A tendency or trend: a movement toward larger kitchens. A change in the market price of a security or commodity. The suggestion or illusion of motion in a painting, sculpture, or design. The progression of events in the development of a literary plot.
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The rhythmical or metrical structure of a poetic composition. Music A self-contained section of an extended composition. Linguistics In generative grammar, a transformation in which a constituent in one part of a syntactic structure is copied or displaced into a different location, creating a new structure. A mechanism, such as the works of a watch, that produces or transmits motion. Crept like a man intent on crime —W. Lethargically, like sloth on the move —Kenzaburo Oë In the novel, A Personal Matter, the lethargy described is that of a man pedalling his bike. Rush sideways, like an excited crab —Jerome K.
Sliding like a shadow among them —R. Stirred like a rustle of leaves —Maurice Edelman Edelman’s simile is used to draw an image of whispers stirring up around the actions of the hero of his novel, Disraeli Rising. A section of a large work, especially a symphony, usually complete in itself. He contributed to the Movement for the Ordination of Women. He could watch her every movement. There was movement behind the door. The act or process of moving:motion, move, stir.
A change in normal place or position:dislocation, displacement, disturbance, move, rearrangement, shift. A calculated change in position:evolution, maneuver, move, turn. An organized effort to accomplish a purpose:campaign, crusade, drive, push. Il entendit des bruits dans la cabane. BUT Il y a eu des tentatives pour rétablir le service militaire. Ils suivent les déplacements des poissons qui remontent la rivière. I was deeply moved by the film.
You can win this game in three moves. The animal turned sideways with a swift movement. In this play there is a lot of discussion but not much movement. There’s a movement towards simple designs in clothing these days. Get a move on, or you’ll be late! If you make a move, I’ll shoot you! He made a move for the door.
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The police told the crowd to move along. We can move in on Saturday. The bus moved off just as I got to the bus stop. She has to move out before the new owners arrive.
Move up and let me sit down, please. With his kind of job, he’s always on the move. The frontiers of scientific knowledge are always on the move. Want to thank TFD for its existence?
Tell a friend about us, add a link to this page, or visit the webmaster’s page for free fun content. Please log in or register to use Flashcards and Bookmarks. Write what you mean clearly and correctly. Meg kneeling before their mother’s easy chair with her face hidden. Wing Biddlebaum sprang to his feet and thrust his hands deep into his trousers pockets. Ned or Tom, or perhaps by having winded them, turned his head quickly and gazed with cruel eyes straight at the spot where the two young men stood behind the bushes.
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Edna Pontellier different from the crowd. An assemblage is any number of “things” or pieces of “things” gathered into a single context. Becoming-” is a process of change, flight, or movement within an assemblage. Rather than conceive of the pieces of an assemblage as an organic whole, within which the specific elements are held in place by the organization of a unity, the process of “becoming-” serves to account for relationships between the “discrete” elements of the assemblage. The “Body without Organs” or BwO is a term Deleuze and Guattari have taken from Antonin Artaud which consists of an assemblage or body with no underlying organizational principles, and hence no organs within it.
The BwO is a post-Enlightenment entity, a body but not an organism. You never reach the Body without Organs, you can’t reach it, you are forever attaining it, it is a limit. People ask, So what is this BwO? Nomadism” is a way of life that exists outside of the organizational “State.
The nomadic way of life is characterized by movement across space which exists in sharp contrast to the rigid and static boundaries of the State. As a model for culture, the rhizome resists the organizational structure of the root-tree system which charts causality along chronological lines and looks for the originary source of “things” and looks towards the pinnacle or conclusion of those “things. Deleuze and Guattari explain: Smooth space is filled by events or haecceities, far more than by formed and perceived things. It is a space of affects, more than one of properties.
It is haptic rather than optical perception. One of the fundamental tasks of the State is to striate the space over which it reigns, or to utilize smooth spaces as a means of communication in the service of striated space. It is a vital concern of every State not only to vanquish nomadism but to control migrations and more generally, to establish a zone of rights over an entire “exterior,” over all flows traversing the ecumenon. Interestingly, Deleuze and Guattari mention the necessity of “smooth space as a means of communication” in the service of the State.
But, as information becomes more and more central to the economy and as the exploding telecommunications market becomes more central not only to the workings of capital, but to its very creation, it would seem that the organization of the State itself could be subject to disruption or deterritorialization. The “War Machine” is a tool of the nomad through which capture can be avoided and smooth space preserved. Why do we need buffer zones? We all have an invisible, protective bubble around us, a primal need hardwired into our brains that is constantly switched on like a force field.
It has layers, some layers close to the skin like a bodysuit, others farther away like a quarantine tent. Elaborate networks in the brain monitor those protective bubbles and keep them clear of danger by subtly, or sometimes drastically, adjusting our actions. You walk through a cluttered room weaving effortlessly around furniture. A pigeon swoops past your head in the street and you duck. You stand a little further from your boss than your friend, and much closer to your lover. In the 1950s, the director of the Zurich Zoo, Heini Hediger, saw the evolutionary roots of this behavior in his careful studies of animals.
Many animals have a territory based on external landmarks. Hediger noticed that most animals construct a second kind of territory that is egocentric, a bubble of space that moves as they move, and it serves a specific function. He called it an escape distance, or a flight zone. When a wildebeest sees a potentially dangerous animal – a lion let’s say – it doesn’t simply run. This isn’t a simple stimulus-response proposition. The animal seems to make a geometric assessment. It remains calm until the threat enters a protected zone, and then the wildebeest moves away and reinstates the flight zone.
That escape distance is apparently consistent enough to measure it to the meter. The flight zone is not the same as fear. It’s also not the same thing as running or flying away. It’s neither an emotion nor a behavior.
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It can certainly come with these properties, but the flight zone is a specific spatial computation that can proceed in the animal’s head in absence of any obvious fear or escape. Animals can have a buffer even with respect to other animals of the same species. One of Hediger’s most famous photographs was of a line of seagulls sitting on a log, spaced in such perfectly even increments that they looked almost like carved decorations. How far the space extends depends mainly on how crowded the conditions were in which the animal was raised and the local population density. So personal territory can expand or contract depending on the local circumstances.
Every country is a territory staked out by clearly defined boundaries and sometimes protected by armed guards. Within each country there are usually smaller territories in the form of states and counties. Within these are even smaller territories called cities and towns, within which are suburbs, containing many streets that, in themselves, represent a closed territory to those who live there. In the cinema it’s an armrest where we do silent battle with strangers who try to claim it.
A territory is also an area or space around a person that he claims as his own, as if it were an extension of his body. Each person has his own personal territory, which includes the area that exists around his possessions, such as his home, which is bounded by fences, the inside of his motor vehicle, his own bedroom or personal chair and, a defined air space around his body. Over recent decades, scientists have delved into the underlying evolution, psychology and neuroscience of personal space in a large number of studies. American anthropologist Edward Hall was one of the pioneers in the study of man’s spatial needs and in the early 1960s he coined the word ‘proxemics’, from ‘proximity’ or nearness.
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His research into this field led to new understanding about our relationships with each other. A consistent finding in studies is that personal space extends with anxiety. If you score high on stress, or if the experimenter stresses you ahead of time – maybe you take a test and are told that you failed it – your personal space grows with respect to other people. If you’re put at ease, or the experimenter flatters your self-esteem ahead of time, your personal space shrinks. When tested at finer precision, personal space tends to stick out farther in front than at the sides or behind. When people are crowded together in the subway and the balloon of personal space is compressed, you can see its intrinsic shape particularly well. If you could sneak around with a tape measure and record the average distance between the body parts of adjacent travelers, you would see an overall trend toward buffering the front of the face and especially the eyes.
The most recent wave of research on personal space focuses on the brain mechanisms. Specific areas of the brain contain neurons that monitor the space around the body and track objects. These neurons are almost like radar, firing off signals when something looms close, their activity rising to a frenzied peak if the object touches. All this machinery impacts the rest of our lives: our sense of self, our ability to use tools, our culture and our social and emotional behavior – in other words, what it means to be human.
When you understand the implications of this, you can gain enormous insights into your own behavior, and the face-to-face reactions of others can be predicted. This chapter will deal mainly with the implications of this air space, how people react when it is invaded and the importance of sometimes keeping an ‘arms-length’ relationship. Personal space is therefore partially culturally determined. Where some cultures, such as the Japanese, are accustomed to crowding, others prefer the ‘wide open spaces’ and like you to keep your distance. Research shows that people in prisons appear to have larger personal space needs than most of the community, which results in the prisoners being constantly aggressive when approached by others. Solitary confinement, where no others are in the prisoner’s space, always has a calming effect.
Violence from passengers on aircraft increased during the 1990s when the airlines started packing people close together in the seats to compensate for revenue lost as a result of price discounting. Zone Distances We’ll now discuss the radius of the ‘air bubble’ around suburban middle-class people living in places such as Australia, New Zealand, Great Britain, North America, Northern Europe, Scandinavia, Canada or anywhere a culture is ‘Westernized’ such as Singapore, Guam and Iceland. The country in which you personally live may have larger or smaller territories than those we discuss here, but they will be proportionately the same as the ones we discuss here. Of all the zone distances, this is by far the most important, as it is this zone that a person guards as if it were his own property.
Only those who are emotionally close to us are permitted to enter. These include lovers, parents, spouse, children, close friends, relatives and pets. This is the close Intimate Zone. This is the distance that we stand from others at cocktail parties, office parties, social functions and friendly gatherings. We stand at this distance from strangers, the plumber or carpenter doing repairs around our home, the mailman, the barista at Starbucks, the new employee at work and people whom we do not know very well. Whenever we address a large group of people, this is the comfortable distance at which we choose to stand. All these distances tend to reduce between two women and increase between two men.
This means that putting your arm, in a friendly way, around someone you’ve just met may result in that person feeling negative towards you, even though they may smile and appear to enjoy it in order not to offend you. Women stand slightly closer to one another, face each other more and touch more than men do with other men. If you want people to feel comfortable around you, the golden rule is ‘keep your distance’. The more intimate our relationship is with other people, the closer they will permit us to move within their zones. A recently hired employee may initially feel that the other staff members are cold towards him, but they are only keeping him in the Social Zone until they know him better. Who Is Moving In on Whom? The distance that two people keep their hips apart when they embrace reveals clues about the relationship between them.
Lovers press their torsos against each other and move within each other’s close Intimate Zones. For example, the CEO of a company may be the weekend fishing buddy of one of his subordinates and when they go fishing each may move within the other’s personal or Intimate Zone. At the office, however, the CEO keeps his fishing buddy at the social distance to maintain the unwritten code of social strata rules. Why We Tend To Hate Riding in Buses and Trains Crowding at concerts, cinemas, in trains or buses results in unavoidable intrusion into other people’s Intimate Zones, and people’s reactions are fascinating to watch. There is a list of unwritten rules that most cultures follow rigidly when faced with a crowded situation such as a packed bus, in a line at the sandwich shop or on public transport.
There will be no talking to anyone, including a person you know. Avoid eye contact with others at all times. Maintain a ‘poker face’ – no emotion is permitted to be shown. If you have a book or newspaper, pretend to be deeply engrossed in it. In bigger crowds, no body movement is allowed. At all times, you must watch the floor numbers change at all times.
This behavior is called ‘masking’ and is common everywhere. It’s simply each person’s attempt to hide their emotions from others by wearing a neutral mask. We often hear words such as ‘miserable’, ‘unhappy’ and ‘despondent’ used to describe people who travel to work in the rush hour on public transport. Notice how you behave next time you go alone to a crowded cinema.
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As you choose a seat that is surrounded by a sea of unknown faces, notice how, like a pre-programmed robot, you will begin to obey the unwritten rules of masking in a crowded public place. As you compete for territorial rights to the armrest with the stranger beside you, you will begin to realize why those who often go to a crowded cinema alone do not take their seats until the lights are out and the film begins. As the density of the crowd increases, each individual has less personal space and starts to feel hostile, which is why, as the size of the mob increases, it becomes angrier and uglier and fights may break out. Only in recent years have governments and town planners begun to understand the effect that high-density housing projects have in depriving individuals of their personal territory. Maryland in Chesapeake Bay in the United States.
One of our deepest urges is the desire to own land. This compulsion comes from the fact that it gives us the space freedom we need. Interrogators use territorial invasion techniques to break down the resistance of criminals being questioned. They seat the criminal on an armless, fixed chair in an open area of the room and encroach into his intimate and close Intimate Zones when asking questions, remaining there until he answers. It often takes only a short while for this territorial harassment to break down the criminal’s resistance. Spacing Rituals When a person claims a space or an area among strangers such as a seat at the cinema, a place at the conference table or a towel hook at the health club, he does it in a predictable way. He usually looks for the widest space available between two others and claims the area in the center.
At the cinema he will choose a seat that is halfway between the end of a row and where the nearest person is sitting. Doctors and hairdressers are given permission to enter our Intimate Zones. We allow pets in at any time because they are not threatening. At the cinema, if you choose a seat more than halfway between the end of the row and the nearest other person, that other person may feel offended if you are too far away from him or he may feel intimidated if you sit too close.
The main purpose of this spacing ritual is to maintain harmony and it appears to be a learned behavior. An exception to this rule is the spacing that occurs in public toilet blocks. Men always try to avoid standing beside strangers at a public urinal and always obey the unwritten law of ‘Death before eye contact’. Try the Luncheon Test Try this simple test next time you eat with someone.
Unspoken territorial rules state that a restaurant table is divided equally down the middle and the staff carefully place the salt, pepper, sugar, flowers and other accessories equally on the center line. As the meal progresses, subtly move the salt cellar across to the other person’s side, then the pepper, flowers and so on. Cultural Factors Affecting Zone Distances A young Italian couple migrated from Italy to live in Sydney, Australia and were invited to join a local social club. Several weeks after joining, three female members complained that the Italian man was making sexual advances towards them and that they felt uncomfortable around him. The male members of the club felt that the Italian woman had also been behaving as if she could be sexually available.
This situation illustrates the complications that can happen when cultures with different space needs come together. Australians but were totally unaware of their intrusion into the Australians’ 46-centimetre Intimate Zone. Moving into the Intimate Zone of the opposite sex is a way of showing interest in that person and is commonly called an advance’. If the advance into the Intimate Zone is rejected, the other person will step backwards to reclaim their space. If the advance is accepted, the other person holds his ground and allows the intruder to remain.