Can Chinese Be Written In An Alphabet?
In the chinese alphabet, small letters are written like capital letters, and vice versa. We use data about you for a number of can Chinese Be Written In An Alphabet? explained in the links below. Follow the link for more information.
Chinese characters do not constitute an alphabet or a compact syllabary. Some Chinese characters have been adopted into writing systems of other neighbouring East Asian languages, but are currently used only in Japanese and Korean, as Vietnamese is now written using alphabetic script. A 12th-century Song Dynasty redaction of the Shuōwén Jiězì. Written Chinese is not based on an alphabet or a compact syllabary. Instead, Chinese characters are glyphs whose components may depict objects or represent abstract notions. According to the Shuowen Jiezi, Chinese characters are developed on six basic principles.
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Rites of Zhou, a text from about 150 BC. Pictographs, in which the character is a graphical depiction of the object it denotes. Indicatives, or ideographs, in which the character represents an abstract notion. Examples: 上 shàng “up”, 下 xià “down”, 三 sān “three”. Logical aggregates, in which two or more parts are used for their meaning. This yields a composite meaning, which is then applied to the new character. Transference, in which a character, often with a simple, concrete meaning takes on an extended, more abstract meaning.
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Borrowing, in which a character is used, either intentionally or accidentally, for some entirely different purpose. Once, there was no character for “older brother”, so an otherwise unrelated character with the right pronunciation was borrowed for that meaning. Chinese characters are written to fit into a square, even when composed of two simpler forms written side-by-side or top-to-bottom. In such cases, each form is compressed to fit the entire character into a square. Character components can be further subdivided into strokes.
Horizontal strokes are written before vertical ones. Left-falling strokes are written before right-falling ones. Characters are written from top to bottom. Characters are written from left to right. If a character is framed from above, the frame is written first. If a character is framed from below, the frame is written last.
In a symmetrical character, the middle is drawn first, then the sides. These rules do not strictly apply to every situation and are occasionally violated. Vertical Chinese writing seen on a restaurant sign and bus stop in Hong Kong. Chinese characters conform to a roughly square frame and are not usually linked to one another, so do not have a preferred direction of writing. In modern times, the familiar Western layout, left-to-right horizontal Chinese, has become more popular.
Similar to Latin-letter text, the horizontal rows are read from left to right, then top of the page to the bottom. It is not uncommon to encounter all three orientations on signs on neighboring stores. Chinese is one of the oldest continually used writing systems still in use. In 2003, some 11 isolated symbols carved on tortoise shells were found at Jiahu, an archaeological site in the Henan province of China, some bearing a striking resemblance to certain modern characters, such as 目 mù “eye”. Since the Jiahu site dates from about 6600 BC, it predates the earliest confirmed Chinese writing by more than 5,000 years.
Left: Bronze 方樽 fāngzūn ritual wine container dated about 1000 BC. The written inscription cast in bronze on the vessel commemorates a gift of cowrie shells in Zhou Dynasty society. Right: Bronze 方彝 fāngyí ritual container dated about 1000 BC. Regular script is considered the archetype for Chinese writing, and forms the basis for most printed forms. In addition, regular script imposes a stroke order, which must be followed in order for the characters to be written correctly. In the 20th century, written Chinese divided into two canonical forms, called simplified Chinese and traditional Chinese. The simplified forms have also been criticized for being inconsistent.
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For instance, traditional 讓 ràng “allow” is simplified to 让, in which the phonetic on the right side is reduced from 17 strokes to just three. The speech radical on the left has also been simplified. Simplified Chinese is standard in the mainland of China, Singapore and Malaysia. 1200 BC, containing some 200 bronze vessels with 109 inscriptions in oracle bone script of Fu Hao’s name. Each written character corresponded to one monosyllabic word.
Over the centuries, Classical Chinese gradually acquired some of its grammar and character senses from the various dialects. Chinese languages and dialects vary by not only pronunciation, but also, to a lesser extent, vocabulary and grammar. The variation in vocabulary among dialects has also led to the informal use of “dialectal characters”, as well as standard characters that are nevertheless considered archaic by today’s standards. Chinese characters were first introduced into Japanese sometime in the first half of the first millennium AD, probably from Chinese products imported into Japan through Korea.
At the time, Japanese had no native written system, and Chinese characters were used for the most part to represent Japanese words with the corresponding meanings, rather than similar pronunciations. The role of Chinese characters in Korean and Vietnamese is much more limited. Korean for their meaning, just as in Japanese. Chinese characters are also used within China to write non-Han languages.
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The largest non-Han group in China, the Zhuang, have for over 1300 years used Chinese characters. Despite both the introduction of an official alphabetic script in 1957 and lack of a corresponding official set of Chinese characters, more Zhuang people can read the Zhuang logograms than the alphabetic script. Over the history of written Chinese, a variety of media have been used for writing. Stone, metal, wood, bamboo, plastic and ivory on seals. Since at least the Han dynasty, such media have been used to create hanging scrolls and handscrolls. Because the majority of modern Chinese words contain more than one character, there are at least two measuring sticks for Chinese literacy: the number of characters known, and the number of words known.
Written Chinese is not based on an alphabet or syllabary, so Chinese dictionaries, as well as dictionaries that define Chinese characters in other languages, cannot easily be alphabetized or otherwise lexically ordered, as English dictionaries are. The need to arrange Chinese characters in order to permit efficient lookup has given rise to a considerable variety of ways to organize and index the characters. A traditional mechanism is the method of radicals, which uses a set of character roots. These roots, or radicals, generally but imperfectly align with the parts used to compose characters by means of logical aggregation and phonetic complex. In many cases, the radicals are themselves characters, which naturally come first under their own heading. All other characters under a given radical are ordered by the stroke count of the character.
However, it is not always easy to identify which of the various roots of a character is the proper radical. Accordingly, dictionaries often include a list of hard to locate characters, indexed by total stroke count, near the beginning of the dictionary. Other methods of organization exist, often in an attempt to address the shortcomings of the radical method, but are less common. For instance, it is common for a dictionary ordered principally by the Kangxi radicals to have an auxiliary index by pronunciation, expressed typically in either hanyu pinyin or zhuyin fuhao. The availability of computerized Chinese dictionaries now makes it possible to look characters up by any of the indexing schemes described, thereby shortening the search process. Chinese characters do not reliably indicate their pronunciation, even for one dialect.
It is therefore useful to be able to transliterate a dialect of Chinese into the Latin alphabet or the Perso-Arabic script Xiao’erjing for those who cannot read Chinese characters. The association between pinyin and Mandarin, as opposed to other dialects, may have contributed to this deferment. Pinyin uses the Latin alphabet, along with a few diacritical marks, to represent the sounds of Mandarin in standard pronunciation. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
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Keightley, “Art, Ancestors, and the Origins of Writing in China”, Representations, No. 56, Special Issue: The New Erudition. An Outsider’s Chats about Written Language”. Statistical Part-of-Speech Tagging for Classical Chinese. Text, Speech, and Dialogue: Fifth International Conference.
Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, p. Second Language Socialization in a Bilingual Chat Room: Global and Local Considerations”. Perspectives for the Historical Information Retrieval with Digitized Japanese Classical Manuscripts. Proceedings of the 20th Annual Conference of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence.
A New Hierarchical Approach for Recognition of Unconstrained Handwritten Numerals”. The Chinese Language: Fact and Fantasy. ABC Etymological Dictionary of Old Chinese. Berkeley: Society for the Study of Early China and The Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California. English translation of Wénzìxué Gàiyào 文字學概要, Shangwu, 1988. Cantonese as Written Language: The Growth of a Written Chinese Vernacular. Yue E Li and Christopher Upward.
Review of the process of reform in the simplification of Chinese Characters”. Com English to Chinese Dictionary Includes example sentences, how to write the character, native Mandarin audio and more. Mandarin Chinese children’s story in simplified Chinese showing the stroke order for every character. Flag of the People’s Republic of China. This page was last edited on 28 February 2018, at 13:46. Please forward this error screen to sharedip-1601539270.
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Vietnamese language in use around the world. VND for Vietnamese Dong – the currency of Vietnam. This changed set of characters makes new alphabet letters for use in the Vietnamese language. They are an extension to the set of Latin characters already used.
For example: ape, angry, all, art, aorta, and apple. Vietnamese schools teach the alphabet with these 29 letters. The total number of possible letters is much higher if diacritical marks are added. The F, J, W, Z not used native letters, Only English use native letters F, J, W, Z. These are the tone rules for vowels with different sounds.
It’s like music where only the correct sound can come from the instrument. It doesn’t matter which instrument, as long as the sound follows the rules. Unmarked vowels are pronounced with a level voice, in the middle of the speaking range. The lifting mark tells the speaker to start normal and lift. The falling mark tells the speaker to start normal and drop the sound.
The turning mark tells the speaker to start low, then drop, and finally lift. A breaking mark tells the speaker to start, stop, drop, and then start again and lift. The sunk mark tells the speaker start low and get a quick, sunk stop. Note: This is a spoken language so musical pitch or lilt is not the most changed sound quality. Different voices have different musical pitches. Before, the alphabet was arranged from ‘a to z’ by foreign dictionaries, it included two letter sounds.
The letters are like two letter sounds in English. Ch’ in mechanic, or Christmas are good examples. Letters like ‘Tr’ used to be in every dictionary’s order right in between the other alphabet letters. In addition to the normal alphabet consonants, there are nine possible double-letters and one triple-letter. Vietnamese words can be moved around in their order.
The reversal of the syllable-words moves them to another position in the dictionary. Also, the syllable-words can be held behind different syllable-words – like the articles in English. It’s best to use a computer query to find them. Young Vietnamese learners will spend a lot of time with this alphabet. The need for correction is used in many comedies about uneducated people. Comedies about foreigners are becoming very common too. The reason for all the attention is how quickly the meaning will change.
A learner will only hear ‘dow, dow dow’ or ‘dough, dough, dough’ or ‘dow, dough, dough’ which does not help when listening. The same problem can be stated in English – ‘four forks for foreigners’ foreheads forthwith! So, the other letters ‘j, f, w and z’ are now OK to use in many places – on billboards, posters, T-shirts But, if you work for any type of Vietnamese authority or association, then limit their use until the authority declares them as acceptable letters. But, the other alphabets that are used in English might not be accepted. Vietnamese used to be written in Chinese characters. A variety for Vietnamese is used in traditional culture. Many Chinese speakers find Vietnamese easy to grasp.
The combination of two words is very common to Chinese. Diphthongs’ are the next most important step to understanding the use of Vietnamese letters. The combination of toned vowels as dipthongs and tripthongs makes the Vietnamese language very fast. Some phrases can be spoken clearly without a strong clarity from consonants. It’s very hard for English speakers to follow the combinations of sounds, especially vowels. Nobody can buy a computer keyboard for Vietnamese, in Vietnam. The common QWERTY keyboard is used in Vietnam.
The webpage is usually set to include the UTF-8 standard when using the Vietnamese alphabet. If the design of the characters is strange the designer of a web-page will set the font to plain “Arial”. Some software is free to use. An open-source software program for the Vietnamese keyboard has already been written. There are a few virtual keyboard systems to use.
Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans will recognize the characters, but the combination of characters won’t make sense to them. And people who cannot read Chinese won’t even try to read it. All are either positive or neutral in meaning. If you have developed your own set and would like to share with our users, please contact us as well. You can then e-mail the translation or copy and paste it to your own notes or documents.
Meaning: Learn the true meaning behind each Chinese alphabet character with one touch. Translator: Automatic translation from your written English to Chinese alphabet characters with the touch of a button. You can also e-mail the translation to yourself or your friends. An Internet connection is required for this feature. WARNING The translation provided by Chinese Alphabet is intended for personal use and entertainment only.
11 years of great Chinese names. For the species of moth known as “Chinese Character”, see Cilix glaucata. This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
Vietnamese, in a system known as Chữ Nôm, and Zhuang, in a system known as Sawndip. Collectively, they are known as CJK characters. Chinese characters constitute the oldest continuously used system of writing in the world. Chinese characters number in the tens of thousands, though most of them are minor graphic variants encountered only in historical texts.