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This article is about a mountain pass in the United States. Not carter Middle Ecology Club be confused with Cumberland Narrows, a water gap near Cumberland, Maryland.
The Cumberland Gap is a narrow pass through the long ridge of the Cumberland Mountains, within the Appalachian Mountains, near the junction of the U. Famous in American colonial history for its role as a key passageway through the lower central Appalachians, it was an important part of the Wilderness Road and is now part of the Cumberland Gap National Historical Park. Long used by Native Americans, the Cumberland Gap was brought to the attention of settlers in 1750 by Thomas Walker, a Virginia physician and explorer. The path was used by a team of frontiersmen led by Daniel Boone, making it accessible to pioneers who used it to journey into the western frontiers of Kentucky and Tennessee. The Cumberland Gap is one of many passes in the Appalachian Mountains but the only one in the continuous Cumberland Mountain ridge line.
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The area surrounding Cumberland Gap National Historical Park is composed of sedimentary rock, which is formed by the compaction of particles of gravel, sand, silt, mud, and carbonate minerals from the repetitive rise and fall of shallow seas. The V-shaped gap serves as a gateway to the west. Because it is centrally located in the United States, the region around Cumberland Gap experiences all four seasons. The nearest cities are Middlesboro, Kentucky, and Harrogate, Tennessee.
However, the discovery of the Middlesboro impact structure has proposed new details in the formation of Cumberland Gap. Less than 300 million years ago a meteorite, “approximately the size of a football field”, struck the earth, creating the Middlesboro Crater. Without the Rocky Face Fault, it would have been difficult for pack-horses to navigate this gap and the gap in Pine Mountain near Pineville, and it would be improbable that wagon roads would have been constructed at an early date. Middlesboro is the only place in the world where coal is mined inside an astrobleme. The passage created by Cumberland Gap was well-traveled by Native Americans long before the arrival of European-American settlers.
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The earliest written account of Cumberland Gap dates to the 1670s, by Abraham Wood of Virginia. The gap was named for Prince William, Duke of Cumberland, son of King George II of Great Britain, who had many places named for him in the American colonies after the Battle of Culloden. In 1775 Daniel Boone, hired by the Transylvania Company, arrived in the region leading a company of men to widen the path through the gap to make settlement of Kentucky and Tennessee easier. Several American Civil War engagements occurred in and around the Cumberland Gap and are sometimes called Battle of the Cumberland Gap. In June 1862, Union Army General George W. It is estimated that between 200,000 and 300,000 migrants passed through the gap on their way into Kentucky and the Ohio Valley before 1810.
Today 18,000 cars pass beneath the site daily, and 1,200,000 people visit the park on the site annually. The park features many hiking trails. Route 25E passed overland through the gap before the completion of the Cumberland Gap Tunnel in 1996. The original trail was then restored.
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The gap and associated historic resources were listed on the National Register of Historic Places as a historic district on May 28, 1980. Within the Cumberland Gap National Historical Park there are currently 855 known species of vascular plants identified, but that number is expected to increase with reports from National Park Service inventory and monitoring programs. Of the current 371 species of animals within the park, 33 are mammals, 89 are birds, 29 amphibians, 15 reptiles, 27 fish, and 187 are insects. Profile for Cumberland Gap National Historical Park”.
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Archived from the original on August 26, 2013. The Archaeological Research Laboratory, University of Tennessee. Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. Back In Time – The Cumberland Gap”. Plants: Cumberland Gap National Historical Park”.
Animals: Cumberland Gap National Historical Park”. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cumberland Gap. This page was last edited on 23 March 2018, at 00:08. This article needs additional citations for verification. In the United States today, the organized environmental movement is represented by a wide range of organizations sometimes called non-governmental organizations or NGOs. These organizations exist on local, national, and international scales.
The modern Environmental movement, which began in the 1960s with concern about air and water pollution, became broader in scope to including all landscapes and human activities. Today Environmental health is more related to nutrition, preventive medicine, aging well and other concerns specific to the human body’s well-being. Sustainability movement which started in the 1980s focused on Gaia theory, value of Earth and other interrelations between human sciences and human responsibilities. Its spinoff Deep Ecology was more spiritual but often claimed to be science. Environmental justice is a movement that began in the U. 1980s and seeks an end to environmental racism.
Often, low-income and minority communities are located close to highways, garbage dumps, and factories, where they are exposed to greater pollution and environmental health risk than the rest of the population. Environmental movements often interact or are linked with other social movements, e. Some US colleges are now going green by signing the “President’s Climate Commitment,” a document that a college President can sign to enable said colleges to practice environmentalism by switching to solar power, etc. Early European settlers came to the United States brought from Europe the concept of the commons. In the colonial era, access to natural resources was allocated by individual towns, and disputes over fisheries or land use were resolved at the local level. Changing technologies, however, strained traditional ways of resolving disputes of resource use, and local governments had limited control over powerful special interests. The early national conservation movement shifted emphasis to scientific management which favored larger enterprises and control began to shift from local governments to the states and the federal government.
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The conservation policies of Theodore Roosevelt. Theodore Roosevelt and his close ally George Bird Grinnell, were motivated by the wanton waste that was taking place at the hand of market hunting. This practice resulted in placing a large number of North American game species on the edge of extinction. Roosevelt recognized that the laissez-faire approach of the U. In 1905, his department gained control of the national forest reserves. In May 1908, Roosevelt sponsored the Conference of Governors held in the White House, with a focus on natural resources and their most efficient use.
Roosevelt delivered the opening address: “Conservation as a National Duty. In 1903 Roosevelt toured the Yosemite Valley with John Muir, who had a very different view of conservation, and tried to minimize commercial use of water resources and forests. Theodore Roosevelt, was an ardent conservationist. After World War II increasing encroachment on wilderness land evoked the continued resistance of conservationists, who succeeded in blocking a number of projects in the 1950s and 1960s, including the proposed Bridge Canyon Dam that would have backed up the waters of the Colorado River into the Grand Canyon National Park. No generation can exclusively own the renewable resources by which it lives. During the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, several events occurred which raised the public awareness of harm to the environment caused by man. In the modern wilderness preservation movement, important philosophical roles are played by the writings of John Muir who had been activist in the late 19th and early 20th century.
Along with Muir perhaps most influential in the modern movement is Henry David Thoreau who published Walden in 1854. There is also a growing movement of campers and other people who enjoy outdoor recreation activities to help preserve the environment while spending time in the wilderness. The anti-nuclear movement in the United States consists of more than 80 anti-nuclear groups which have acted to oppose nuclear power or nuclear weapons, or both, in the United States. Anti-nuclear protests reached a peak in the 1970s and 1980s and grew out of the environmental movement. Some scientists and engineers have expressed reservations about nuclear power, including: Barry Commoner, S. David Freeman, John Gofman, Arnold Gundersen, Mark Z.
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Protest about the Love Canal contamination by a resident, ca. Antitoxics groups are a subgroup that is affiliated with the Environmental Movement in the United States, that is primarily concerned with the effects that cities and their by products have on humans. This aspect of the movement is a self-proclaimed “movement of housewives”. Prior to the 1970s the protection of basic air and water supplies was a matter mainly left to each state. During the 1970s, primary responsibility for clean air and water shifted to the federal government. Growing concerns, both environmental and economic, from cities and towns as well as sportsman and other local groups, and senators such as Maine’s Edmund S. The creation of these laws led to a major shift in the environmental movement.
Groups such as the Sierra Club shifted focus from local issues to becoming a lobby in Washington and new groups, for example, the Natural Resources Defense Council and Environmental Defense, arose to influence politics as well. In the 1980s President Ronald Reagan sought to curtail scope of environmental protection taking steps such as appointing James G. Watt who was called one of the most “blatantly anti-environmental political appointees”. The major environmental groups responded with mass mailings which led to increased membership and donations. When industry groups lobbied to weaken regulation and a backlash against environmental regulations, the so-called wise use movement gained importance and influence.
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The wise use movement and anti-environmental groups were able to portray environmentalist as out of touch with mainstream values. In 2004, with the environmental movement seemingly stalled, some environmentalists started questioning whether “environmentalism” was even a useful political framework. Shellenberger and Nordhaus wrote, “Today environmentalism is just another special interest. Evidence for this can be found in its concepts, its proposals, and its reasoning. What stands out is how arbitrary environmental leaders are about what gets counted and what doesn’t as ‘environmental. Most of the movement’s leading thinkers, funders, and advocates do not question their most basic assumptions about who we are, what we stand for, and what it is that we should be doing. These “post-environmental movement” thinkers argue that the ecological crises the human species faces in the 21st century are qualitatively different from the problems the environmental movement was created to address in the 1960s and 1970s.
They argue that climate change and habitat destruction are global and more complex, therefore demanding far deeper transformations of the economy, the culture and political life. Local groups increasingly find that they benefit from collaboration, e. Groups such as The Bioregional Revolution are calling on the need to bridge these differences, as the converging problems of the 21st century they claim compel the people to unite and to take decisive action. Stone’s 1972 essay, “Should trees have standing? One of the earliest lawsuits to establish that citizens may sue for environmental and aesthetic harms was Scenic Hudson Preservation Conference v.
Federal Power Commission, decided in 1965 by the Second Circuit Court of Appeals. The case helped halt the construction of a power plant on Storm King Mountain in New York State. Conservation biology is an important and rapidly developing field. One way to avoid the stigma of an “ism” was to evolve early anti-nuclear groups into the more scientific Green Parties, sprout new NGOs such as Greenpeace and Earth Action, and devoted groups to protecting global biodiversity and preventing global warming and climate change. But in the process, much of the emotional appeal, and many of the original aesthetic goals were lost. Nonetheless, these groups have well-defined ethical and political views, backed by science.
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Some people are skeptical of the environmental movement and feel that it is more deeply rooted in politics than science. Claims made by environmentalists may be perceived as veiled attacks on industry and globalization rather than legitimate environmental concerns. Detractors note that a significant number of environmental theories and predictions have been inaccurate and suggest that the regulations recommended by environmentalists will more likely harm society rather than help nature. Specific examples include when Rachel Carson, in her book Silent Spring, suggested that the pesticide DDT caused cancer and drastically harmed ecosystems. DDT is highly toxic to aquatic life, including crawfish, daphnids, sea shrimp and many species of fish. However, DDT is also used to control malaria. Prominent novelist and Harvard Medical School graduate Michael Crichton appeared before the U.
Most fields of environmental studies are relatively new, and therefore what research we have is limited and does not date far enough back for us to completely understand long-term environmental trends. In the December 1994 Wild Forest Review, Alexander Cockburn and Jeffrey St. Clair wrote “The mainstream environmental movement was elitist, highly paid, detached from the people, indifferent to the working class, and a firm ally of big government. The environmental movement is now accurately perceived as just another well-financed and cynical special interest group, its rancid infrastructure supported by Democratic Party operatives and millions in grants from corporate foundations.
Historian and President of the American Historical Association William Cronon has criticized the modern environmental movement for having a romantic idealizations of wilderness. Cronon writes “wilderness serves as the unexamined foundation on which so many of the quasi-religious values of modern environmentalism rest. Similarly Michael Pollan has argued that the wilderness ethic leads people to dismiss areas whose wildness is less than absolute. In his book Second Nature, Pollan writes that “once a landscape is no longer ‘virgin’ it is typically written off as fallen, lost to nature, irredeemable. Within the environmental movement an ideological debate has taken place between those with an ecocentric view point and an anthropocentric view point. The anthropocentric view has been seen as the conservationist approach to the environment with nature viewed, at least in part, as resource to be used by man.
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While the ecocentric view focused on biodiversity and wilderness protection the anthropocentric view focus on urban pollution and social justice. Some environmental writers, for example William Cronon have criticized the ecocentric view as have a dualist view as man being separate from nature. This section may contain content that is repetitive or redundant of text elsewhere in the article. Please help improve it by merging similar text or removing repeated statements. Environmentalists became much more influential in American politics after the creation or strengthening of numerous U. Fewer environmental laws have been passed in the last decade as corporations and other conservative interests have increased their influence over American politics. Much environmental activism is directed towards conservation, as well as the prevention or elimination of pollution.
As human population and industrial activity continue to increase, environmentalists often find themselves in serious conflict with those who believe that human and industrial activities should not be overly regulated or restricted, such as some libertarians. While most environmentalists are mainstream and peaceful, a small minority are more radical in their approach. Adherents of radical environmentalism and ecological anarchism are involved in direct action campaigns to protect the environment. Earth Days, a 2009 documentary feature film about the start of the environmental movement in the United States.