Collection National Child Labor Committee Collection
The National Child Labor Committee, or NCLC, is collection National Child Labor Committee Collection private, non-profit organization in the United States that serves as a leading proponent for the national child labor reform movement. Its mission is to promote “the rights, awareness, dignity, well-being and education of children and youth as they relate to work and working. NCLC, headquartered on Broadway in Manhattan, New York, is administered by a board of directors that is currently chaired by Betsy Brand. Edgar Gardner Murphy, an American clergyman and author, is credited with proposing the National Child Labor Committee following a conference between Murphy’s Alabama Child Labor Committee, and the New York Child Labor Committee.
The new organization moved swiftly in procuring the support of prominent Americans. This number represents a fifty percent increase from the 1,118,356 children working for wages in 1880. Lewis Hine’s shadow appears in his portrait of newsboy John Howell, working the street corner in Indianapolis in 1908. In 1908 the National Child Labor Committee hired Lewis Hine, a teacher and professional photographer trained in sociology, who advocated photography as an educational medium, to document child labor in American industry. Over the next ten years Hine would publish thousands of photographs designed to pull at the nation’s heartstrings. Hine’s subjects included both boys and girls employed by mills and factories and other occupations all over the United States.
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For the average American, Hine provided an otherwise unavailable window into the somber working conditions facing America’s youth. When asked about his work on the subject Hine simply stated that he “wanted to show things that had to be corrected. Hine’s work resulted in a wave of popular support for federal child labor regulations put forward by the NCLC. Lewis Hine was an influential photo journalist in the years leading up to the First World War. It was during those years that the American economy was doing well, and the need for labor was at an all-time high. Cheap labor was necessary, and American businesses were not only looking for immigrant workers but also child labor as well. There was a shift in thinking in the early 1900s towards an end to child labor.
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The argument from reformers, as they were called, was that child labor was a sick cycle that was inevitably going to end in a future of poverty for the children in the work force. The long hours were robbing children of not only an education but a childhood as well. Lewis Hine became an investigative photojournalist for the National Child Labor Committee in the early 1900s. Hine took many pictures of workers under the age of 16 in the field. His pictures are the ones that appear in many books on the history of child labor. His photographs were taken in high risk situations in order to capture the negative side of child labor.
Consequently, the NCLC decided to refocus its state-by-state attack on child labor and endorsed the first national anti-child labor bill, introduced to congress by Senator Albert J. In response, the NCLC called for the establishment of a federal children’s bureau that would investigate and report on the circumstances of all American children. In 1915, the NCLC, facing the varied success and inherent limitations of its efforts at the state level, decided to move its efforts to the federal level. The NCLC then switched its strategy to passing of a federal constitutional amendment.
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However, by 1932 only six states had voted for ratification, while twenty-four had rejected the measure. The act prohibits any interstate commerce of goods produced through oppressive child labor. For the entirety of World War II, the NCLC served as a watchdog to ensure that employment shortages caused by the war did not weaken the newly passed and implemented child labor laws, and that children were not drawn back into the mines, mills and streets. After WWII, the National Child Labor Committee significantly broadened its scope of involvement by placing a new emphasis on the importance of educating children about the working world as well as advocating programs designed to advance the education and health of migrant farmworkers throughout the America. During the 1950s and 60s the NCLC advocated and contributed to the various bills including the Manpower Development and Training Act, the Economic Opportunity Act and the Vocational Education Act. The NYEC was formed in order to provide support to organizations that help youth become productive private citizens. The NCLC provided the original housing for the NYEC and shared an Executive Director from 1983-1987.
In 1985 the NCLC introduced the Lewis Hine Awards for Service to Children and Youth, which honor unheralded Americans for their work with young people, and give special awards to better-known leaders for their extraordinary efforts. Over the past two decades the awards have developed into an annual event of national notoriety with awards given out to a diverse range of professionals and volunteers. KAPOW exists as a network of private business and elementary school partnerships which introduces students to the world of work through lessons taught by private sector volunteers. Archived from the original on September 17, 2008.
Archived from the original on February 7, 2009. Encyclopedia of children and Childhood in History and Society. Archived from the original on 2008-06-21. Archived from the original on 2007-07-10.
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Kids at Work Lewis Hine and the Crusade Against Child Labor. Act of Congress: Keating-Owen Act of 1916″. History – The Child Labor Education Project”. Continue to Learn – University of Iowa.
Archived from the original on August 21, 2008. Kids and the Power of Work KAPOW”. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Photographs of child laborers by Lewis Hine. Guide to the National Child Labor Committee Publications, 1907-1967. Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library. This page was last edited on 21 April 2018, at 01:41. September 1996 by Human Rights Watch.
Asia are indebted to numerous individuals and organizations for their valuable and generous assistance in the course of researching this report. SUMMARY My sister is ten years old. Every morning at seven she goes to the bonded labor man, and every night at nine she comes home. I feel this is very difficult for her. Youngsters today may lie about their ages to sneak into movies or bars, but a century ago, the fibbing stakes were considerably higher – as children routinely lied to keep their families above the poverty line. Haunting images taken at mills in Winchendon, Massachusetts in 1911 capture the faces of children as young as eight as they illegally endured unsafe conditions, long hours and poor pay to keep their families from starving. In a sad twist, the workers spent their hours making wooden toys – from doll furniture, drums and building blocks – for other youngsters who did not have to spend their childhood and adolescence cooped up inside the mills’ four walls.
While children under the age of 12 were not legally allowed to work in the mills, Hine noted that many appeared much younger, while others claimed they were older in order to be able to work longer hours. Right, Rosina Goyette, claimed she was 14 but the photographer, Lewis Hine, guessed she was 12. The smallest also often flouted the ‘helper’ rule, in which younger children were permitted if they were merely given the older workers a helping hand. One worker Francis Pagnette, from France, worked in the Glenallen Mill and told the photographer he was 15. I doubt it,’ Mr Hine added.
Mamie La Barge at her Machine,’ Hine writes on another photograph. Hine noted that he spoke to the parents of another child, 12-year-old Batise Joseph, who said the boy would soon be going to school. Another boy, who was 13 and lived with his illiterate sister and parents, openly admitted to the photographer: ‘I’ll stay at work until they come after me. The youngster added that he is ‘helped’ by his eight-year-old brother Edgar. He picks up bobbins and things like that,’ he said. Hine photographed the children for the National Child Labor Committee – a lobbying organisation – and is often credited with creating a hard-hitting body of work that ultimately helped bring about stricter labour laws, giving youngsters their childhoods back.
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The Committee hired Hine, a sociology professor who encouraged his students to see photography as an effective medium of education, in 1908, and for the decades to follow he published thousands of images to highlight the insufferable conditions of children’s workplaces. Through more than 5,000 photographs, he caught the plethora of jobs filled by youngsters, including stringing tobacco in dingy factories, stitching in sweatshops and picking cotton or berries. He visited mills and factories all over the United States to capture girls and boys, toddlers and teenagers. Many Americans viewing the pictures would have no other means of knowing the plight the nation’s youth was facing, and when asked about his work, Hines said he ‘wanted to show things that had to be corrected’. The photographer would sneak into factories, often hiding his camera and posing as a fire inspector. He risked being beaten by managers if they discovered him. Although the images of the grubby-faced children may be startling today, Hine’s critics claimed his pictures were not shocking enough.
Illiterate: The girls, left, admitted they were 12 and their crew in the mill was made up entirely of children. He made no attempt to exaggerate their poverty, arguing that people were more likely to support a campaign against child labour if they felt the pictures accurately depicted the conditions. Owen Lovejoy, Chairman of the National Child Labour Committee, wrote that ‘the work Hine did for this reform was more responsible than all other efforts in bringing the need to public attention’. The demand for child labour was a result of the boom in industry at the end of the 19th century. Businesses sought immigrant and child workers to complete cheap labour. Many saw children, with their small hands and energy, as ideal employees. But at the turn of the century, some reformists started voicing their concerns over the children’s welfare and the negative effects on their education.
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There were fears the practice would stunt America in years to come because of a high number of overworked, under-educated youths. Set up on 1904, the National Child Labour Committee worked state by state to lobby legislatures to adopt regulations. In 1915, its efforts started to focus on the federal level. In 1916, Congress agreed to pass legislation to protect children and restrictions were placed on the employment of children aged under 14 in factories and shops. And in 1938, after a series of failed or retracted laws, the Committee supported the Fair Labor Standards Act, which prohibited any interstate commerce of goods made through oppressive child labor. Oppressive child labor’ was defined as any form of employment for children under sixteen and any particularly hazardous occupation for children ages sixteen to eighteen, excluding agricultural labour. The Hine NCLC collection consists of more than 5,100 photographic prints and 355 glass negatives, given to the Library of Congress.
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The comments below have not been moderated. We are no longer accepting comments on this article. United States between 1908 and 1924. The collection consists of more than 5,100 photographic prints and 355 glass negatives, given to the Library of Congress, along with the NCLC records, in 1954 by Mrs. Gertrude Folks Zimand, acting for the NCLC in her capacity as chief executive. This article is about the federal Labor Party. Labor Party articles, see List of state branches of the Australian Labor Party.
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Labor’s constitution has long stated: “The Australian Labor Party is a democratic socialist party and has the objective of the democratic socialisation of industry, production, distribution and exchange, to the extent necessary to eliminate exploitation and other anti-social features in these fields”. The ALP was not founded as a federal party until after the first sitting of the Australian Parliament in 1901. Nevertheless, it is regarded as descended from labour parties founded in the various Australian colonies by the emerging labour movement in Australia, formally beginning in 1891. The Australian Labor Party has its origins in the Labour parties founded in the 1890s in the Australian colonies prior to federation. At the 1893 South Australian elections the ULP was immediately elevated to balance of power status with 10 of 54 lower house seats. The liberal government of Charles Kingston was formed with the support of the ULP, ousting the conservative government of John Downer. In 1899, Anderson Dawson formed a minority Labour government in Queensland, the first in the world, which lasted one week while the conservatives regrouped after a split.
The colonial Labour parties and the trade unions were mixed in their support for the Federation of Australia. Some Labour representatives argued against the proposed constitution, claiming that the Senate as proposed was too powerful, similar to the anti-reformist colonial upper houses and the British House of Lords. Historian Celia Hamilton, examining New South Wales, argues for the central role of Irish Catholics. Before 1890, they opposed Henry Parkes, the main Liberal leader, and of free trade, seeing them both as the ideals of Protestant Englishmen who represented landholding and large business interests. The federal parliament in 1901 was contested by each state Labour Party. Though Watson further strengthened Labour’s position in 1906, he stepped down from the leadership the following year, to be succeeded by Andrew Fisher who formed a minority government lasting seven months from late 1908 to mid 1909.