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You can choose your language settings from within the program. Like the orthography of most world languages, English orthography has a broad degree of standardization. Note: In the following discussion, only one or two common pronunciations of American and British English varieties are used in this article for each word cited. Other regional pronunciations may be possible for some words, but indicating all possible regional variants in the article is impractical. Sequences of letters may perform this role as well as single letters. Less commonly, a single letter can represent multiple successive sounds.
Some words contain silent letters, which do not represent any sound in modern English pronunciation. Another type of spelling characteristic is related to word origin. For example, the words heir and air are pronounced identically in most dialects, but in writing they are distinguished from each other by their different spellings. Some letters in English provide information about the pronunciation of other letters in the word. Letters may mark different types of information.
A single letter may even fill multiple pronunciation-marking roles simultaneously. Doubled consonants usually indicate that the preceding vowel is pronounced short. In these cases, the orthography indicates the underlying consonants that are present in certain words but are absent in other related words. Thus, again the orthography uses only a single spelling that corresponds to the single morphemic form rather than to the surface phonological form.
The abstract representation of words as indicated by the orthography can be considered advantageous since it makes etymological relationships more apparent to English readers. This makes writing English more complex, but arguably makes reading English more efficient. English has some words that can be written with accent marks. These words have mostly been imported from other languages, usually French. As imported words become increasingly naturalised, there is an increasing tendency to omit the accent marks, even in formal writing.
It was formerly common in American English to use a diaeresis mark to indicate a hiatus: for example, coöperate, daïs, reëlect. Written accents are also used occasionally in poetry and scripts for dramatic performances to indicate that a certain normally unstressed syllable in a word should be stressed for dramatic effect, or to keep with the metre of the poetry. This use is frequently seen in archaic and pseudoarchaic writings with the -ed suffix, to indicate that the e should be fully pronounced, as with cursèd. Such words have Latin or Greek origin. Attempts to regularize or reform the spelling of English have usually failed. Besides the quirks the English spelling system has inherited from its past, there are other idiosyncrasies in spelling that make it tricky to learn. It is, however, not the shortage of letters which makes English spelling irregular.
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There was also a period when the spelling of a small number of words was altered in what is now regarded as a misguided attempt to make them conform to what were perceived to be the etymological origins of the words. The spelling of English continues to evolve. As a result, there is a somewhat regular system of pronouncing “foreign” words in English, and some borrowed words have had their spelling changed to conform to this system. Commercial advertisers have also had an effect on English spelling.
See the section Spelling-to-sound correspondences for a comprehensive treatment. Sometimes everyday speakers of English change a counterintuitive pronunciation simply because it is counterintuitive. Changes like this are not usually seen as “standard”, but can become standard if used enough. An example is the word miniscule, which still competes with its original spelling of minuscule, though this might also be because of analogy with the word mini. Inconsistencies and irregularities in English pronunciation and spelling have gradually increased in number throughout the history of the English language.
There are a number of contributing factors. The regular spelling system of Old English was swept away by the Norman Conquest, and English itself was supplanted in some spheres by Norman French for three centuries, eventually emerging with its spelling much influenced by French. Norman spelling conventions which prohibited writing u before v, m, n due to the graphical confusion that would result. In 1417 Henry V began using English for official correspondence, which had no standardized spelling, instead of Latin or French which had standardized spelling. Old French as used in English law had 6 spellings, Middle English had 77 spellings.
There was also a series of linguistic sound changes towards the end of this period, including the Great Vowel Shift, which resulted in the i in mine, for example, changing from a pure vowel to a diphthong. By the time dictionaries were introduced in the mid 17th century, the spelling system of English had started to stabilise. By the 19th century, most words had set spellings, though it took some time before they diffused throughout the English-speaking world. Tulliver did not willingly write a letter, and found the relation between spoken and written language, briefly known as spelling, one of the most puzzling things in this puzzling world. Nevertheless, like all fervid writing, the task was done in less time than usual, and if the spelling differed from Mrs. The most notorious group of letters in the English language, ough, is commonly pronounced in at least ten different ways, six of which are illustrated in the construct, Though the tough cough and hiccough plough him through, which is quoted by Robert A. The place name Loughborough uses two different pronunciations of ough: the first ough has the sound as in cuff and the second rhymes with thorough.
Heavy and tense-r vowels are the respective lax and tense counterparts followed by the letter r. Tense vowels are distinguished from lax vowels with a “silent” e letter that is added at the end of words. Besides silent e, another strategy for indicating tense and tense-r vowels, is the addition of another orthographic vowel forming a digraph. In this case, the first vowel is usually the main vowel while the second vowel is the “marking” vowel. The use of two different strategies relates to the function of distinguishing between words that would otherwise be homonyms.
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This table includes H, W and Y when they represent vowel sounds. If no information is given, it is assumed that the vowel is in a stressed syllable. In the tables, the hyphen has two different meanings. A hyphen after the letter indicates that it must be at the beginning of a syllable, e. A hyphen before the letter indicates that it cannot be at the beginning of a word, e. More specific rules take precedence over more general ones, e.
Where the letter combination is described as “word-final”, inflectional suffixes may be added without changing the pronunciation, e. This article is about the novel by George Orwell. Animal Farm is an allegorical novella by George Orwell, first published in England on 17 August 1945. Animal Farm was the first book in which he tried, with full consciousness of what he was doing, “to fuse political purpose and artistic purpose into one whole”. 1946, and only one of the translations during Orwell’s lifetime kept it.
Other titular variations include subtitles like “A Satire” and “A Contemporary Satire”. French translation, which abbreviates to URSA, the Latin word for “bear”, a symbol of Russia. Orwell wrote the book between November 1943 and February 1944, when the UK was in its wartime alliance with the Soviet Union and the British people and intelligentsia held Stalin in high esteem, a phenomenon Orwell hated. 31 on the Modern Library List of Best 20th-Century Novels. Old Major, the old boar on the Manor Farm, summons the animals on the farm together for a meeting, during which he refers to humans as “enemies” and teaches the animals a revolutionary song called “Beasts of England”. When Major dies, two young pigs, Snowball and Napoleon, assume command and consider it a duty to prepare for the Rebellion. Snowball teaches the animals to read and write, while Napoleon educates young puppies on the principles of Animalism.
Food is plentiful, and the farm runs smoothly. The pigs elevate themselves to positions of leadership and set aside special food items, ostensibly for their personal health. Some time later, several men attack Animal Farm. Jones and his men are making an attempt to recapture the farm, aided by several other farmers who are terrified of similar animal revolts. Snowball and the animals, who are hiding in ambush, defeat the men by launching a surprise attack as soon as they enter the farmyard.
Snowball’s popularity soars, and this event is proclaimed “The Battle of the Cowshed”. Napoleon enacts changes to the governance structure of the farm, replacing meetings with a committee of pigs who will run the farm. Through a young pig named Squealer, Napoleon claims credit for the windmill idea. The animals work harder with the promise of easier lives with the windmill. Once Snowball becomes a scapegoat, Napoleon begins to purge the farm with his dogs, killing animals he accuses of consorting with his old rival.
Snowball as a collaborator of Farmer Jones, while falsely representing himself as the hero of the battle. Mr Frederick, a neighbouring farmer, attacks the farm, using blasting powder to blow up the restored windmill. Boxer’s death to further praise the glories of Animal Farm and have the animals work harder by taking on Boxer’s ways. However, the truth was that Napoleon had engineered the sale of Boxer to the knacker, allowing him and his inner circle to acquire money to buy whisky for themselves. Years pass, and the windmill is rebuilt along with construction of another windmill, which makes the farm a good amount of income. However, the ideals which Snowball discussed, including stalls with electric lighting, heating and running water are forgotten, with Napoleon advocating that the happiest animals live simple lives.
In addition to Boxer, many of the animals who participated in the Revolution are dead, as is Farmer Jones, who died in another part of England. Napoleon holds a dinner party for the pigs and local farmers, with whom he celebrates a new alliance. He abolishes the practice of the revolutionary traditions and restores the name “The Manor Farm”. As the animals look from pigs to humans, they realise they can no longer distinguish between the two. An aged prize Middle White boar provides the inspiration that fuels the rebellion.
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A large, rather fierce-looking Berkshire boar, the only Berkshire on the farm, not much of a talker, but with a reputation for getting his own way”. Napoleon’s rival and original head of the farm after Jones’ overthrow. He is mainly based on Leon Trotsky, but also combines elements from Lenin. A small, white, fat porker who serves as Napoleon’s second-in-command and minister of propaganda, holding a position similar to that of Vyacheslav Molotov. A poetic pig who writes the second and third national anthems of Animal Farm after the singing of “Beasts of England” is banned. Hinted to be the children of Napoleon and are the first generation of animals subjugated to his idea of animal inequality.
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Four pigs who complain about Napoleon’s takeover of the farm but are quickly silenced and later executed, the first animals killed in Napoleon’s farm purge. Napoleon’s food to make sure it is not poisoned, in response to rumours about an assassination attempt on Napoleon. A heavy drinker who is the original owner of Manor Farm, a farm in disrepair with farmhands who often loaf on the job. The tough owner of Pinchfield, a small but well-kept neighbouring farm, who briefly enters into an alliance with Napoleon. The easy-going but crafty and well-to-do owner of Foxwood, a large neighbouring farm overgrown with weeds. Unlike Frederick, Pilkington is wealthier and owns more land, but his farm is in need of care as opposed to Frederick’s smaller but more efficiently-run farm. A man hired by Napoleon to act as the liaison between Animal Farm and human society.
At first he is used to acquire necessities that cannot be produced on the farm, such as dog biscuits and paraffin wax, but later he procures luxuries like alcohol for the pigs. A loyal, kind, dedicated, extremely strong, hard working, and respectable cart-horse, although quite naive and gullible. Boxer does a large share of the physical labour on the farm. He is shown to hold the belief that ‘Napoleon is always right’. At one point, he had challenged Squealer’s statement that Snowball was always against the welfare of the farm, earning him an attack from Napoleon’s dogs. A self-centred, self-indulgent and vain young white mare who quickly leaves for another farm after the revolution. She is only once mentioned again, in a manner similar to those who left Russia after the fall of the Tsar.
A gentle, caring female horse, who shows concern especially for Boxer, who often pushes himself too hard. Clover can read all the letters of the alphabet, but cannot “put words together”. She seems to catch on to the sly tricks and schemes set up by Napoleon and Squealer. A donkey, one of the oldest, wisest animals on the farm, and one of the few who can read properly.
He is sceptical, temperamental and cynical: his most frequent remark is, “Life will go on as it has always gone on—that is, badly. A wise old goat who is friends with all of the animals on the farm. She, like Benjamin and Snowball, is one of the few animals on the farm who can read. Offspring of Jessie and Bluebell, they were taken away at birth by Napoleon and reared by him to be his security force. The raven, “Mr Jones’s especial pet, was a spy and a tale-bearer, but he was also a clever talker.
Initially following Mrs Jones into exile, he reappears several years later and resumes his role of talking but not working. He regales Animal Farm’s denizens with tales of a wondrous place beyond the clouds called “Sugarcandy Mountain, that happy country where we poor animals shall rest forever from our labours! Napoleon’s ideals with vocal jingles during his speeches and meetings with Snowball. Some commentators have compared the sheep to representations of state controlled press. The hens are promised at the start of the revolution that they will get to keep their eggs, which are stolen from them under Mr Jones.
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However their eggs are soon taken from them under the premise of buying goods from outside Animal Farm. The hens are among the first to rebel, albeit unsuccessfully, against Napoleon. The cows are enticed into the revolution by promises that their milk will not be stolen, but can be used to raise their own calves. Their milk is then stolen by the pigs, who learn to milk them. The milk is stirred into the pigs’ mash every day, while the other animals are denied such luxuries. Immediately prior to writing the book, Orwell had quit the BBC. He was also upset about a booklet for propagandists the Ministry of Information had put out.
The booklet included instructions on how to quell ideological fears of the Soviet Union, such as directions to claim that the Red Terror was a figment of Nazi imagination. I saw a little boy, perhaps ten years old, driving a huge carthorse along a narrow path, whipping it whenever it tried to turn. It struck me that if only such animals became aware of their strength we should have no power over them, and that men exploit animals in much the same way as the rich exploit the proletariat. Orwell initially encountered difficulty getting the manuscript published, largely due to fears that the book might upset the alliance between Britain, the United States, and the Soviet Union. During the Second World War, it became clear to Orwell that anti-Soviet literature was not something which most major publishing houses would touch—including his regular publisher Gollancz. He also submitted the manuscript to Faber and Faber, where the poet T.
The publisher Jonathan Cape, who had initially accepted Animal Farm, subsequently rejected the book after an official at the British Ministry of Information warned him off—although the civil servant who it is assumed gave the order was later found to be a Soviet spy. If the fable were addressed generally to dictators and dictatorships at large then publication would be all right, but the fable does follow, as I see now, so completely the progress of the Russian Soviets and their two dictators , that it can apply only to Russia, to the exclusion of the other dictatorships. Another thing: it would be less offensive if the predominant caste in the fable were not pigs. I think the choice of pigs as the ruling caste will no doubt give offence to many people, and particularly to anyone who is a bit touchy, as undoubtedly the Russians are. Frederic Warburg also faced pressures against publication, even from people in his own office and from his wife Pamela, who felt that it was not the moment for ingratitude towards Stalin and the heroic Red Army, which had played a major part in defeating Hitler. In October 1945, Orwell wrote to Frederic Warburg expressing interest in pursuing the possibility that the political cartoonist David Low might illustrate Animal Farm.
Low had written a letter saying that he had had “a good time with ANIMAL FARM—an excellent bit of satire—it would illustrate perfectly. The sinister fact about literary censorship in England is that it is largely voluntary. Things are kept right out of the British press, not because the Government intervenes but because of a general tacit agreement that ‘it wouldn’t do’ to mention that particular fact. Although the first edition allowed space for the preface, it was not included, and as of June 2009 most editions of the book have not included it. Secker and Warburg published the first edition of Animal Farm in 1945 without an introduction. However, the publisher had provided space for a preface in the author’s proof composited from the manuscript. For reasons unknown, no preface was supplied, and the page numbers had to be renumbered at the last minute.
Contemporary reviews of the work were not universally positive. Writing in the American New Republic magazine, George Soule expressed his disappointment in the book, writing that it “puzzled and saddened me. It seemed on the whole dull. The allegory turned out to be a creaking machine for saying in a clumsy way things that have been said better directly. The Guardian on 24 August 1945 called Animal Farm “a delightfully humorous and caustic satire on the rule of the many by the few”. Animal Farm has been subject to much comment in the decades since these early remarks. For the Noahide code, see Seven Laws of Noah.
The pigs Snowball, Napoleon, and Squealer adapt Old Major’s ideas into “a complete system of thought”, which they formally name Animalism, an allegoric reference to Communism. Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy. Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend. No animal shall sleep in a bed. No animal shall kill any other animal. These commandments are also distilled into the maxim “Four legs good, two legs bad!