Evidence-Based Core Model
Insurance, news, resources, advice and support. Why are you looking for evidence? These decisions should be made by those receiving care, informed by the tacit and explicit knowledge of those providing care, within the context of available resources’. Both definitions suggest that EBP requires the integration of best research evidence, individual evidence-Based Core Model expertise and patient choice.
The diagram demonstrates the importance of different sources of evidence, from research, clinical practice and patients. There is much debate about what EBP is and whether the traditional model of EBP needs updating. Associate Professor Roger Kerry, University of Nottingham and Professor Michael Loughlin, Manchester Metropolitan University. Evidence-based medicine: why are we even debating it?
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Is it time to end the tyranny of evidence-based practice? 1996 Evidence based medicine: what it is and what it isn’t. UK’s 57,000 chartered physiotherapists, physiotherapy students and support workers. The standards call for a staircase of increasing complexity so that all students are ready for the demands of college- and career-level reading no later than the end of high school. The standards call for students to grow their vocabularies through a mix of conversation, direct instruction, and reading. They ask students to determine word meanings, appreciate the nuances of words, and steadily expand their range of words and phrases. Because the standards are the roadmap for successful classrooms, and recognizing that teachers, school districts, and states need to decide on the journey to the destination, they intentionally do not include a required reading list.
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Instead, they include numerous sample texts to help teachers prepare for the school year and allow parents and students to know what to expect during the year. The standards include certain critical types of content for all students, including classic myths and stories from around the world, foundational U. American literature, and the writings of Shakespeare. The standards appropriately defer the majority of decisions about what and how to teach to states, districts, schools, and teachers. The Common Core emphasizes using evidence from texts to present careful analyses, well-defended claims, and clear information. Rather than asking students questions they can answer solely from their prior knowledge and experience, the standards call for students to answer questions that depend on their having read the texts with care. The reading standards focus on students’ ability to read carefully and grasp information, arguments, ideas, and details based on evidence in the text.
Students should be able to answer a range of text-dependent questions, whose answers require inferences based on careful attention to the text. 12 have drawn heavily from student experience and opinion, which alone will not prepare students for the demands of college, career, and life. Though the standards still expect narrative writing throughout the grades, they also expect a command of sequence and detail that are essential for effective argumentative and informative writing. Students must be immersed in information about the world around them if they are to develop the strong general knowledge and vocabulary they need to become successful readers and be prepared for college, career, and life. Informational texts play an important part in building students’ content knowledge. Further, it is vital for students to have extensive opportunities to build knowledge through texts so they can learn independently.
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In K-5, fulfilling the standards requires a 50-50 balance between informational and literary reading. The K-5 standards strongly recommend that texts—both within and across grades—be selected to support students in systematically developing knowledge about the world. In grades 6-12, there is much greater attention on the specific category of literary nonfiction, which is a shift from traditional standards. To be clear, the standards pay substantial attention to literature throughout K-12, as it constitutes half of the reading in K-5 and is the core of the work of 6-12 ELA teachers. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts.
Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 6-8 texts and topics. Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text, including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to an understanding of the topic. Analyze the author’s purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an experiment in a text.
Distinguish among facts, reasoned judgment based on research findings, and speculation in a text. Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic. Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity:CCSS. 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently. Please click here for the ADA Compliant version of the English Language Arts Standards. This is done in a manner that is compatible with the environmental and organizational context. Areas of professional practice, such as medicine, psychology, psychiatry, rehabilitation and so forth, have had periods in their pasts where practice was based on loose bodies of knowledge.
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Some of the knowledge was lore that drew upon the experiences of generations of practitioners, and much of it had no valid scientific evidence on which to justify various practices. In the past, this has often left the door open to quackery perpetrated by individuals who had no training at all in the domain, but who wished to convey the impression that they did, for profit or other motives. The notion of evidence based practice has also had an influence in the field of education. Here, some commentators have suggested that the putative lack of any conspicuous progress is attributable to practice resting in the unconnected and noncumulative experience of thousands of individual teachers, each re-inventing the wheel and failing to learn from hard scientific evidence about ‘what works’. Evidence-based practice is an approach that tries to specify the way in which professionals or other decision-makers should make decisions by identifying such evidence that there may be for a practice and rating it according to how scientifically sound it may be. Its goal is to eliminate unsound or excessively risky practices in favor of those that have better outcomes. Where EBP is applied, it encourages professionals to use the best evidence possible, i.
Much of the credit for today’s EBP techniques belongs to Archie Cochrane, an epidemiologist, author of the book, Effectiveness and Efficiency: Random Reflections on Health Services. It recognizes that care is individualized and ever changing and involves uncertainties and probabilities. EBP develops individualized guidelines of best practices to inform the improvement of whatever professional task is at hand. Evidence-based practice is a philosophical approach that is in opposition to rules of thumb, folklore, and tradition.
However, in spite of the enthusiasm for EBP over the last decade or two, some authors have redefined EBP in ways that contradict, or at least add other factors to, the original emphasis on empirical research foundations. Research oriented scientists, as opposed to authors, test whether particular practices work better for different subcultures or personality types, rather than just accept received wisdom. The theories of evidence based practice are becoming more commonplace in nursing care. Looking at a few types of articles to examine how this type of practice has influenced the standard of care is important but rarely internally valid. None of the articles specify what their biases are. Evidence-based design and development decisions are made after reviewing information from repeated rigorous data gathering instead of relying on rules, single observations, or custom.
This model of care has been studied for 30 years in universities and is gradually making its way into the public sector. You have a disease, take this pill. Key elements in using the best evidence to guide the practice of any professional include the development of questions using research-based evidence, the level and types of evidence to be used, and the assessment of effectiveness after completing the task or effort. One obvious problem with EBP in any field is the use of poor quality, contradictory, or incomplete evidence. Accordingly, a therapy is considered “efficacious and specific” if there is evidence from at least two settings that it is superior to a pill or psychological placebo or another bona fide treatment. If there is evidence from two or more settings that the therapy is superior to no treatment it is considered “efficacious”.
ESTs have been defined as “clearly specified psychological treatments shown to be efficacious in controlled research with a delineated population. Because conclusions about research results are made in a probabilistic manner, it is impossible to work with two simple categories of outcome research reports. Research evidence does not fall simply into “evidence-based” and “non-evidence-based” classes, but can be anywhere on a continuum from one to the other, depending on factors such as the way the study was designed and carried out. Evaluation of research quality can be a difficult task requiring meticulous reading of research reports and background information. Although early consideration of EBP issues by psychologists provided a stringent but simple definition of EBP, requiring two independent randomized controlled trials supporting the effectiveness of a treatment, it became clear that additional factors needed to be considered. A number of protocols for the evaluation of research reports have been suggested and will be summarized here. Some of these divide research evidence dichotomously into EBP and non-EBP categories, while others employ multiple levels of evidence.
As the reader will see, although the criteria used by the various protocols overlap to some extent, they do not do so completely. The Kaufman Best Practices Project approach did not use an EBP category per se, but instead provided a protocol for selecting the most acceptable treatment from a group of interventions intended to treat the same problems. To be designated as “best practice”, a treatment would need to have a sound theoretical base, general acceptance in clinical practice, and considerable anecdotal or clinical literature. A protocol suggested by Saunders et al. To be classified under this protocol, there must be descriptive publications, including a manual or similar description of the intervention. A protocol for evaluation of research quality was suggested by a report from the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, prepared by Khan et al.
An assessment protocol has been developed by the U. Evaluation under this protocol occurs only if an intervention has already had one or more positive outcomes, with a probability of less than . A protocol suggested by Mercer and Pignotti uses a taxonomy intended to classify on both research quality and other criteria. In this protocol, evidence-based interventions are those supported by work with randomized designs employing comparisons to established treatments, independent replications of results, blind evaluation of outcomes, and the existence of a manual.
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Protocols for evaluation of research quality are still in development. A process has been specified that provides a standardised route for those seeking to produce evidence of the effectiveness of interventions. Originally developed to establish processes for the production of evidence in the housing sector, the standard is general in nature and is applicable across a variety of practice areas and potential outcomes of interest. When there are many small or weak studies of an intervention, a statistical meta-analysis can be used to co-ordinate the studies’ results and to draw a stronger conclusion about the outcome of the treatment. This can be an important contribution to the establishment of a foundation of evidence about an intervention. A SRS can be more or less useful, depending on the evaluation protocol chosen, and errors in choice or use of a protocol have led to fallacious reports.
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There are increasing demands for the whole range of social policy and other decisions and programs run by government and the NGO sector to be based on sound evidence as to their effectiveness. This has seen an increased emphasis on the use of a wide range of Evaluation approaches directed at obtaining evidence about social programs of all types. The concept of Evidence-based policy and practice within international development is similarly being emphasized. Why many clinical psychologists are resistant to evidence-based practice: root causes and constructive remedies”. Reflections from medical practice: balancing evidence-based practice with practice based evidence”. Evidence-based practice: How did it emerge and what does it really mean for the early childhood field?
Matching Alcoholism Treatments to Client Heterogeneity: Project MATCH posttreatment drinking outcomes”. Nursing knowledge, skill, and attitudes related to evidenced based practice: Before or After Organizational Supports”. Changing paradigms from empirically supported treatment to evidence-based practice: A cultural perspective”. Shortcuts cause errors in systematic research syntheses: Rethinking evaluation of mental health interventions”.
Scientific Review of Mental Health Practice. Problematic phrases in the conclusions of published outcome studies”. Child physical and sexual abuse: Guidelines for treatments. York, UK: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York. Holding Therapy and Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy are not supported and acceptable social work interventions”. A summary of alcohol treatment outcome research”.
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Evidence Based Practice in School Mental Health. What clinical psychologists know about evidence-based practice: familiarity with online resources and research methods”. What is the evidence on evidence-based nursing? Making the case for evidence-based practice”.
Evidence-based practice: critique and alternative view”. Empirically supported treatment’s impact on organizational culture and climate”. Evidence-based medicine: How to practice and teach EBM. Corsini’s Encyclopedia of Psychology and Behavioral Science. The Oxford Handbook of Clinical Psychology. International Collaborative on Evidence-based Practice in Nursing. This page was last edited on 6 April 2018, at 16:01.
This article is about knowledge derived from the scientific method. Scientific evidence is evidence which serves to either support or counter a scientific theory or hypothesis. A person’s assumptions or beliefs about the relationship between observations and a hypothesis will affect whether that person takes the observations as evidence. These assumptions or beliefs will also affect how a person utilizes the observations as evidence.
For example, the Earth’s apparent lack of motion may be taken as evidence for a geocentric cosmology. For example, Priestley, working with phlogiston theory, explained his observations about the decomposition of mercuric oxide using phlogiston. A more formal method to characterize the effect of background beliefs is Bayesian inference. In Bayesian inference, beliefs are expressed as percentages indicating one’s confidence in them. The importance of background beliefs in the determination of what observations are evidence can be illustrated using deductive reasoning, such as syllogisms. If either of the propositions is not accepted as true, the conclusion will not be accepted either. Popper, have provided influential theories of the scientific method within which scientific evidence plays a central role.
The philosophical community has investigated the logical requirements for scientific evidence by examination of the relationship between evidence and hypotheses, in contrast to scientific approaches which focus on the candidate facts and their context. Based on the philosophical assumption of the Strong Church-Turing Universe Thesis, a mathematical criterion for evaluation of evidence has been conjectured, with the criterion having a resemblance to the idea of Occam’s Razor that the simplest comprehensive description of the evidence is most likely correct. According to the posted curriculum for an “Understanding Science 101” course taught at University of California – Berkeley: “Testing hypotheses and theories is at the core of the process of science. This philosophical belief in “hypothesis testing” as the essence of science is prevalent among both scientists and philosophers. While the phrase “scientific proof” is often used in the popular media, many scientists have argued that there is really no such thing. The scientific theorist is not to be envied. For Nature, or more precisely experiment, is an inexorable and not very friendly judge of his work.
It never says “Yes” to a theory. In the most favorable cases it says “Maybe,” and in the great majority of cases simply “No. If an experiment agrees with a theory it means for the latter “Maybe,” and if it does not agree it means “No. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolution, 2nd Ed. William Talbott “Bayesian Epistemology” Accessed May 13, 2007. Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence, 2nd Ed. Proceedings of the 1998 Biennial Meetings of the Philosophy of Science Association.
William Bechtel, Scientific Evidence: Creating and Evaluating Experimental Instruments and Research Techniques, PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association, Vol. Minimum Description Length Induction, Bayesianism and Kolmogorov Complexity”. See, for example, “Greenpeace co-founder: No scientific proof humans are dominant cause of warming climate”. This page was last edited on 4 April 2018, at 13:10.
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I say in my home page for this site that I appreciate everyone’s opinion and I do. So let’s examine some glutes exercises you can do and some research behind them. All pictures are reproduced from research articles freely available on the web and will be referenced and linked. 2009 used an EMG study to determine which exercises produced most activation of Gluteus Medius. They compared a number of exercises including hip clam, single limb squat, single limb deadlift, lateral band walks, multiplanar lunges and multiplanar hops. They found single limb squat to produce the second most EMG activity and lateral band walk the third. Now you may be wondering does this translate to changes that I can feel and see?
It’s fair to question this, EMG change is all good in theory but what about in practice? Fredericson, who’s written quite widely on ITB problems and their treatments did a study on runners in 2000. So hip abduction, one of the roles of Gluteus Medius, is weaker on the side runners have ITBS. What exercises did they use to rehab it and return people to running?
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2012 compared 3 sidelying exercises sidelying abduction, the clam, and sidelying abduction with external rotation in healthy runners. Gluteus Medius activation was similar to Distefano’s earlier work at 79. This is reproduced from Boren et al. 2011 who did an excellent study and also compared their results with earlier work. Again reproduced from Boren et al. Most people think of the clam as the exercise described in Clam 1 above.
In this study 3 progressions of the exercise were included. So we’ve seen 3 exercises, all in sidelying, that produce high levels of Gluteus Medius activation, at least comparable to, and in some cases higher than weight bearing exercise. We were given this by one of their team at a Strength and Conditioning lecture but sadly can’t reproduce it online. Once again from Boren et al.