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Allegri Allegri dopo Juve-Napoli: “Inter-Juve sarà decisiva”. Poi si sfoga in Juventus, Allegri: “Partita bruttissima. Please forward this error screen to sharedip-10718044127. The Jewish people have long maintained both physical and religious ties with the land of Israel.

In 165 BCE, after the religion-driven Maccabean Revolt, the independent orthodox Hasmonean Kingdom was established. In 64 BCE the Romans conquered Israel, turning it into a Roman province. In 1099 the Crusaders conquered Jerusalem and nearby coastal areas, losing and recapturing it for almost 200 years until their final ouster from Acre in 1291. The term “Jews” originates from the Biblical Hebrew word Yehudi, and in its original meaning refers to the people of the Tribe of Judah or the people of the Kingdom of Judah. While alternative translations exist, the majority of biblical archeologists translate a set of hieroglyphs as “Israel”, representing the first instance of the name Israel in the historical record. The name Israel first appears in the stele of the Egyptian pharaoh Merneptah c.

1209 BC, “Israel is laid waste and his seed is not. An artist’s depiction of the Solomon’s Temple. The Bible states that David founded a dynasty of kings and that his son Solomon built a Temple. By around 930 BCE, Judaism was divided into a southern Kingdom of Judah and a northern Kingdom of Israel. From the middle of the 8th century BCE Israel came into increasing conflict with the expanding neo-Assyrian empire. The Assyrian Empire was overthrown in 612 BCE by the Medes and the Neo-Babylonian Empire. In 586 BCE King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon conquered Judah.

Babylonian Judah suffered a steep decline in both economy and population and lost the Negev, the Shephelah, and part of the Judean hill country, including Hebron, to encroachments from Edom and other neighbours. The Babylonian conquest entailed not just the destruction of Jerusalem and its Temple, but the ruination of the entire infrastructure which had sustained Judah for centuries. In 538 BCE, Cyrus the Great of Persia conquered Babylon and took over its empire. Judah remained a province of the Persian empire until 332 BCE. The Hasmonean kingdom at its largest extent.

In 332 BCE the Persians were defeated by Alexander the Great. The Maccabean Revolt led to a twenty-five-year period of Jewish independence due to the steady collapse of the Seleucid Empire under attacks from the rising powers of the Roman Republic and the Parthian Empire. The same power vacuum that enabled the Jewish state to be recognized by the Roman Senate c. 139 BCE after the demise of the Seleucid Empire was next exploited by the Romans themselves. In 63 BCE the Roman general Pompey sacked Jerusalem and made the Jewish kingdom a client of Rome. The situation was not to last, as the deaths of Pompey in 48 BCE and Caesar in 44 BCE, together with the related Roman civil wars, relaxed Rome’s grip on Judea. The revolt was crushed by the Roman emperors Vespasian and Titus.

The Romans destroyed much of the Temple in Jerusalem and took as punitive tribute the Menorah and other Temple artefacts back to Rome. It was during this period that the split of early Christianity and Judaism occurred. The Pharisee movement, led by Yochanan ben Zakai, made peace with Rome and survived. The 2nd century saw two further Jewish revolts against the Roman rule. In 131, Emperor Hadrian renamed Jerusalem Aelia Capitolina and constructed a Temple of Jupiter on the site of the former Jewish temple. After suppressing the Bar Kochba revolt, the Romans permitted a hereditary rabbinical patriarch from the House of Hillel to represent the Jews in dealings with the Romans.

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The most famous of these was Judah the Prince. Continued persecution and the economic crisis that affected the Roman empire in the 3rd-century led to further Jewish migration from Palestine to the more tolerant Persian Sassanid Empire, where a prosperous Jewish community existed in the area of Babylon. Eshtemoa synagogue menorah, carved during the 3rd or 4th century. Early in the 4th century, Roman Empire split and Constantinople became the capital of the East Roman Empire known as the Byzantine Empire. 2, there was another Jewish revolt against a corrupt Roman governor. The Jewish population in Sepphoris rebelled under the leadership of Patricius against the rule of Constantius Gallus.

According to tradition, in 359 CE Hillel II created the Hebrew calendar based on the lunar year. Jews to the Roman government and also sought to ease the burden of mandatory Jewish financial support of the Jewish patriarchate. Jews probably constituted the majority of the population of Palestine until the 4th-century, when Constantine converted to Christianity. Jews lived in at least forty-three Jewish communities in Palestine: twelve towns on the coast, in the Negev, and east of the Jordan, and thirty-one villages in Galilee and in the Jordan valley. The persecuted Jews of Palestine revolted twice against their Christian rulers.

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In the 5th century, the Western Roman Empire collapsed leading to Christian migration into Palestine and development of a Christian majority. In 438, The Empress Eudocia removed the ban on Jews’ praying at the Temple site and the heads of the Community in Galilee issued a call “to the great and mighty people of the Jews”: “Know that the end of the exile of our people has come”! In about 450, the Jerusalem Talmud was completed. According to Procopius, in 533 Byzantine general Belisarius took the treasures of the Jewish temple from Vandals who had taken them from Rome.

In 611, Sassanid Persia invaded the Byzantine Empire. In 638 CE, the Byzantine Empire lost the Levant to the Arab Islamic Empire. According to Moshe Gil, at the time of the Arab conquest in the 7th century, the majority of the population was Jewish or Samaritan. In succeeding centuries a common view is that Christians and Muslims were equally divided. The conversion of the Christians to Islam -Gil maintaining they were a majority- is generally thought to have occurred on a large scale only after the Crusades, in the wake of Saladin’s conquest, and as a result of disaffection for the Latins.

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Historical sources mentions the settlement of Arab tribes and the establishment of new settlements in the 7th century, although little archaeological records have been preserved. However some Arabian settlements like Khirbet Suwwwana, located on outskirts of Jerusalem provides archaeological records of Islamic nomadic settlement and sedentarization among local population. After the conquest, Jewish communities began to grow and flourish. Umar allowed and encouraged Jews to settle in Jerusalem. It was first time, after almost 500 years of oppressive Christian rule, that Jews were allowed to enter and worship freely in their holy city.

Seventy Jewish families from Tiberias moved to Jerusalem in order to help strengthen the Jewish community there. In the mid-8th-century, taking advantage of the warring Islamic factions in Palestine, a false messiah named Abu Isa Obadiah of Isfahan inspired and organised a group of 10,000 armed Jews who hoped to restore the Holy Land to the Jewish nation. In 1039, part of the synagogue in Ramla was still in ruins, probably resulting from the earthquake of 1033. Jews also returned to Rafah and documents from 1015 and 1080 attest to a significant community there. A large Jewish community existed in Ramle and smaller communities inhabited Hebron and the coastal cities of Acre, Caesarea, Jaffa, Ashkelon and Gaza. Galilee and Jerusalem were active in compiling a system of pronunciation and grammatical guides of the Hebrew language. They authorised the division of the Jewish Tanakh, known as the Masoretic Text, which is regarded as authoritative till today.

According to Gilbert, from 1099 to 1291 the Christian Crusaders “mercilessly persecuted and slaughtered the Jews of Palestine. In 1099, the Jews were among the rest of the population who tried in vain to defend Jerusalem against the Crusaders. When the city fell, a massacre of 6,000 Jews occurred when the synagogue they were seeking refuge in was set alight. Under Crusader rule, Jews were not allowed to hold land and involved themselves in commerce in the coastal towns during times of quiescence. Most of them were artisans: glassblowers in Sidon, furriers and dyers in Jerusalem. At this time there were Jewish communities scattered all over the country, including Jerusalem, Tiberias, Ramleh, Ashkelon, Caesarea, and Gaza. A large volume of piyutim and midrashim originated in Palestine at this time.

In 1165 Maimonides visited Jerusalem and prayed on the Temple Mount, in the “great, holy house”. In the crusading era, there were significant Jewish communities in several cities and Jews are known to have fought alongside Arabs against the Christian invaders. The Crusader rule over Palestine had taken its toll on the Jews. Relief came in 1187 when Ayyubid Sultan Saladin defeated the Crusaders in the Battle of Hattin, taking Jerusalem and most of Palestine. In 1211, the Jewish community in the country was strengthened by the arrival of a group headed by over 300 rabbis from France and England, among them Rabbi Samson ben Abraham of Sens.

Title page of Ishtori Haparchi’s Kaftor Vaferech, Venice 1549. In the first Hebrew book printed on the geography of Palestine, 180 locations mentioned in the Bible and Talmudic literature are identified. The conflict impoverished the country and severely reduced the population. In 1266 the Mamluk Sultan Baybars converted the Cave of the Patriarchs in Hebron into an exclusive Islamic sanctuary and banned Christians and Jews from entering, which previously would be able to enter it for a fee.

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The 1428 attempt by German Jews to acquire rooms and buildings on Mount Zion over the Tomb of David had dire consequences. Meir Latif arrived from Ancona and counted 150 Jewish families in Jerusalem. In 1473, the authorities closed down the Nachmanides Synagogue after part of it had collapsed in a heavy rainstorm. A year later, after an appealing to Sultan Qaitbay, the Jews were given permission to repair it. Records cite at least 30 Jewish urban and rural communities in the country at the opening of the 16th century. One of the earliest photographs of Jews praying at the Western Wall of Herod’s Temple, 1870s. Founded in the 1570s, it was rebuilt in 1857 following an earthquake.

17, and became part of the province of Syria for the next four centuries. In 1534, Spanish refugee Jacob Berab settled in Safed. Jews worldwide a recognised central authority. In around 1563, Joseph Nasi secured permission from Sultan Selim II to acquire Tiberias and seven surrounding villages to create a Jewish city-state. In 1567, a Yemenite scholar and Rabbi, Zechariah Dhahiri, visited Safed and wrote of his experiences in a book entitled Sefer Ha-Musar. In 1576, the Jewish community of Safed faced an expulsion order: 1,000 prosperous families were to be deported to Cyprus, “for the good of the said island”, with another 500 the following year. The order was later rescinded due to the realisation of the financial gains of Jewish rental income.

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In 1569, the Radbaz moved to Jerusalem, but soon moved to Safed to escape the high taxes imposed on Jews by the authorities. Installation of the Chacham Bashi at the Ben Zakai Synagogue, 1893. According to legend, the synagogue stands on the site of the study hall of 1st-century sage, Rabban Yochanan ben Zakai. The current building was constructed in 1610. In 1610, the Yochanan ben Zakai Synagogue in Jerusalem was completed.

It became the main synagogue of the Sephardic Jews, the place where their chief rabbi was invested. 1654 Khmelnytsky Uprising in Ukraine over 100,000 Jews were massacred, leading to some migration to Israel. The Near East earthquake of 1759 destroys much of Safed killing 2000 people with 190 Jews among the dead, and also destroys Tiberias. The disciples of the Vilna Gaon settled in the land of Israel almost a decade after the arrival of two of his pupils, R. In all there were three groups of the Gaon’s students which emigrated to the land of Israel.


During the siege of Acre in 1799, Napoleon issued a proclamation to the Jews of Asia and Africa to help him conquer Jerusalem. The siege was lost to the British, however, and the plan was never carried out. Between 1882 and 1948, a series of Jewish migrations to what is the modern nation of Israel, known as Aliyahs commenced. These migrations preceded the Zionist period. In 1917, towards the end of World War I, following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire, Palestine was occupied by British forces. In 1947, following increasing levels of violence, the British government expressed a wish to withdraw from Palestine. The proposed plan of partition would have split Palestine into two states, an Arab state and a Jewish state, and the City of Jerusalem, giving slightly more than half the land area to the proposed Jewish state.

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Its core territory is the region now called Moravia in the eastern part of the Czech Republic alongside the Morava River, which gave its name to the kingdom. Moravia experienced significant cultural development under King Rastislav, with the arrival in 863 of the mission of Saints Cyril and Methodius. Later, the disciples of Cyril and Methodius were expelled from Great Moravia by King Svätopluk I, who re-orientated the Empire to Western Christianity. Cyril and Methodius were declared co-patrons of Europe by Pope John Paul II in 1980. The meaning of the name of Great Moravia has been subject to debate. The work of Porphyrogenitos is the only nearly contemporaneous source using the adjective “great” in connection with Moravia. Other documents from the 9th and 10th centuries never used the term in this context.

Morava” is the Czech and Slovak name for both the river and the country. Hungarian Kingdom, separating the Czech and Slovak territories for another thousand years. According to most historians, the core territories of Moravia were located in the valley of the river Morava in present-day Czech Republic and Slovakia. These Maroara have to the west of them the Thyringas and some Behemas and half the Begware, and south them on the other side of the Danube river is the land Carendre extending south as far as the mountains called the Alps. To the east of the land Carendre, beyond the uninhabited district, is the land of the Pulgare, and east of that is the land of Greeks. The borders of Moravia cannot exactly be determined because of the lack of accurate contemporaneous sources. Lesser Poland, Pannonia, and other regions were forced to accept, at least formally and often only for a short period, his suzerainty.

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The earliest possible reference to Slavic tribes living in the valley of the northern Morava river was made by the Byzantine historian, Procopius. Large territories in the Pannonian Basin were conquered after 568 by the nomadic Avars who had arrived from the Eurasian Steppes. In the 7th-8th century, the development of the local Slavs accelerated. The first Slavic fortified settlements were built in present-day Moravia at least in the last decades of the 7th century. From the end of the 7th century, it is possible to register the rise of a new social elite in Moravia, Slovakia, but also Bohemia – the warrior horsemen. Charlemagne launched a series of military expeditions against the Avars in the last decade of the 8th century which caused the collapse of the Avar Khaganate.

Following the collapse of the Avar Khaganate, swords and other elements of Frankish military equipment became popular in territories to the north of the Middle Danube. Moravia, the first Western Slavic polity arose through the unification of the Slavic tribes settled north of the Danube. However, its formation is scarcely described by contemporaneous sources. Among the Bohemians are 15 fortresses.

The region of the Bulgars is immense. That numerous people has five fortresses, since their great multitude does not require fortresses. The people called have 30 fortresses. Moravian Slavs, who were planning to defect”. Louis the German consolidated his position within Moravia and expanded the frontiers of his realm. He turned against East Francia and supported the rebellion of Ratpot, the deposed prefect of the March of Pannonia, against Louis the German in 853. Rastislav wanted to weaken influence of Frankish priests in his realm, who served the interests of East Francia.