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15th August 2018OffByRiseNews

A leading mental health body has called for warning symbols to accompany airbrushed pictures of models and celebrities to help combat eating disorders. The Royal College of Psychiatrists said a kite mark on digitally enhanced photographs would raise awareness of how often such manipulation takes place funny warning labels help stop people trying to achieve ‘unattainable physical perfection’. The college urged the next Government to set up a forum, made up of politicians, experts, and representatives from the media and advertising, for the development of an editorial ethical code. Consultant psychiatrist Dr Adrienne Key, of the college’s eating disorders section, said the media must be stopped from ‘glamorising’ excessive weight-loss and adding to the psychological and social pressures faced by young people.

She said: ‘What we need to do is raise people’s awareness of what they are looking at. A lot of people have no idea how much manipulation goes on. She said there was mounting evidence to show the role of the media in the development of eating disorders, particularly in adolescents and young people. And she added: ‘The aims of the forum should be to collaboratively develop an ethical editorial code that realistically addresses the damaging portrayal of eating disorders, raises awareness of unrealistic visual imagery created through airbrushing and digital enhancement, and also addresses the skewed and erroneous content of magazines. In its ‘Call for Action’ the college also called for mass media ‘role models’ with diverse weights, shapes and ages, and a ban on the use of underweight models. It urged the media to stop publishing ‘body critical’ articles targeting celebrities for being overweight, underweight or physically imperfect. Susan Ringwood, chief executive of beat, a charity combating eating disorders, said: ‘We welcome this call to action from the Royal College of Psychiatrists.

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The media is a powerful influence and we know how vulnerable some people at risk of eating disorders can be to its visual images in particular. We know there is more that can be done to make that influence a positive one, and adopting the recommendations of the college’s statement would be an important step. The comments below have been moderated in advance. We are no longer accepting comments on this article. Intimidated by the thought of taming your garden for summer?

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This is the latest accepted revision, reviewed on 15 April 2018. For the stand-up special by Louis C. For the Roman Catholic Pope Saint Hilarius, see Pope Hilarius. People of all ages and cultures respond to humour. Most people are able to experience humour—be amused, smile or laugh at something funny—and thus are considered to have a sense of humour. The hypothetical person lacking a sense of humour would likely find the behaviour inducing it to be inexplicable, strange, or even irrational. Many theories exist about what humour is and what social function it serves.

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The theory says ‘humour only occurs when something seems wrong, unsettling, or threatening, but simultaneously seems okay, acceptable or safe’. Others believe that ‘the appropriate use of humour can facilitate social interactions’. Some claim that humour cannot or should not be explained. White once said, “Humor can be dissected as a frog can, but the thing dies in the process and the innards are discouraging to any but the pure scientific mind. However, both humour and comic are often used when theorising about the subject. Non-satirical humour can be specifically termed droll humour or recreational drollery. As with any art form, the acceptance of a particular style or incidence of humour depends on sociological factors and varies from person to person.

Throughout history, comedy has been used as a form of entertainment all over the world, whether in the courts of the Western kings or the villages of the Far East. Mento star Lord Flea, stated in a 1957 interview that he thought that: “West Indians have the best sense of humour in the world. Even in the most solemn song, like Las Kean Fine , which tells of a boiler explosion on a sugar plantation that killed several of the workers, their natural wit and humour shine though. Confucianist Neo-Confucian orthodoxy, with its emphasis on ritual and propriety, has traditionally looked down upon humour as subversive or unseemly. The Confucian “Analects” itself, however, depicts the Master as fond of humorous self-deprecation, once comparing his wanderings to the existence of a homeless dog.

Modern Chinese humor has been heavily influenced not only by indigenous traditions, but also by foreign humor, circulated via print culture, cinema, television, and the internet. The social transformation model of humour predicts that specific characteristics, such as physical attractiveness, interact with humour. This model involves linkages between the humorist, an audience, and the subject matter of the humour. Humour and honesty were ranked as the two most important attributes in a significant other. Furthermore, humorous people are perceived by others to be more cheerful but less intellectual than nonhumorous people. Self-deprecating humour has been found to increase the desirability of physically attractive others for committed relationships.

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Previous research on humour and psychological well-being show that humour is in fact a major factor in achieving, and sustaining, higher psychological wellbeing. Individuals with this dimension of humour tend to use jokes as a mean of affiliating relationships, amuse others, and reduce tensions. People that fall under this dimension of humour tend to take a humorous perspective of life. Individuals with self-enhancing humour tend to use it as a mechanism to cope with stress. Racist jokes, sarcasm and disparagement of individuals for the purpose of amusement.

This type of humour is used by people who do not consider the consequences of their jokes, and mainly focus on the entertainment of the listeners. People with this style of humour tend to amuse others by using self-disparaging jokes, and also tend to laugh along with others when being taunted. It is hypothesised that people use this style of humour as a mean of social acceptance. It is also mentioned that these people may have an implicit feeling of negativity.

So they use this humour as a means of hiding that inner negative feeling. All of which are constituents of psychological wellbeing. Humour is often used to make light of difficult or stressful situations and to brighten up a social atmosphere in general. It is regarded by many as an enjoyable and positive experience, so it would be reasonable to assume that it humour might have some positive physiological effects on the body. A study designed to test the positive physiological effects of humour, the relationship between being exposed to humour and pain tolerance in particular, was conducted in 1994 by Karen Zwyer, Barbara Velker, and Willibald Ruch.

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To test the effects of humour on pain tolerance the test subjects were first exposed to a short humorous video clip and then exposed to the Cold Press Test. There are also potential relationships between humour and having a healthy immune system. SIgA is a type of antibody that protects the body from infections. In a method similar to the previous experiment, the participants were shown a short humorous video clip and then tested for the effects. The participants showed a significant increase in SIgA levels. There have been claims that laughter can be a supplement for cardiovascular exercise and might increase muscle tone.

However an early study by Paskind J. As humour is often used to ease tension, it might make sense that the same would be true for anxiety. A study by Yovetich N, Dale A, Hudak M. The study subject were told that they would be given to an electric shock after a certain period of time. One group was exposed to humorous content, while the other was not. The anxiety levels were measured through self-report measures as well as the heart rate.

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Humour is a ubiquitous, highly ingrained, and largely meaningful aspect of human experience and is therefore decidedly relevant in organisational contexts, such as the workplace. The significant role that laughter and fun play in organisational life has been seen as a sociological phenomenon and has increasingly been recognised as also creating a sense of involvement among workers. Humour may also be used to offset negative feelings about a workplace task or to mitigate the use of profanity, or other coping strategies, that may not be otherwise tolerated. Laughter and play can unleash creativity, thus raising morale, so in the interest of encouraging employee consent to the rigours of the labour process, management often ignore, tolerate and even actively encourage playful practices, with the purpose of furthering organisational goals.

One of the main focuses of modern psychological humour theory and research is to establish and clarify the correlation between humour and laughter. The major empirical findings here are that laughter and humour do not always have a one-to-one association. In 2009, Diana Szameitat conducted a study to examine the differentiation of emotions in laughter. They hired actors and told them to laugh with one of four different emotional associations by using auto-induction, where they would focus exclusively on the internal emotion and not on the expression of laughter itself.

Their second experiment tested the behavioural recognition of laughter during an induced emotional state and they found that different laughter types did differ with respect to emotional dimensions. In addition, the four emotional states displayed a full range of high and low sender arousal and valence. This brings into question the definition of humour, then. If it is to be defined by the cognitive processes which display laughter, then humour itself can encompass a variety of negative as well as positive emotions.

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However, if humour is limited to positive emotions and things which cause positive affect, it must be delimited from laughter and their relationship should be further defined. Humour has shown to be effective for increasing resilience in dealing with distress and also effective in undoing negative affects. Radboud University conducted a study that showed the distracting nature of a joke on bereaved individuals. Subjects were presented with a wide range of negative pictures and sentences. Their findings showed that humorous therapy attenuated the negative emotions elicited after negative pictures and sentences were presented. In addition, the humour therapy was more effective in reducing negative affect as the degree of affect increased in intensity. Humour was immediately effective in helping to deal with distress.

The escapist nature of humour as a coping mechanism suggests that it is most useful in dealing with momentary stresses. Stronger negative stimuli requires a different therapeutic approach. Humour is an underlying character trait associated with the positive emotions used in the broaden-and-build theory of cognitive development. Several studies have shown that positive emotions can restore autonomic quiescence after negative affect.

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Using humour judiciously can have a positive influence on cancer treatment. Humour can serve as a strong distancing mechanism in coping with adversity. In 1997 Kelter and Bonanno found that Duchenne laughter correlated with reduced awareness of distress. Positive emotion is able to loosen the grip of negative emotions on peoples’ thinking. A distancing of thought leads to a distancing of the unilateral responses people often have to negative arousal. Humour has been shown to improve and help the ageing process in three areas. The areas are improving physical health, improving social communications, and helping to achieve a sense of satisfaction in life.

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Studies have shown that constant humour in the ageing process gives health benefits to individuals. Another way that research indicates that humour helps with the ageing process, is through helping the individual to create and maintain strong social relationship during transitory periods in their lives. One such example is when people are moved into nursing homes or other facilities of care. Humour can also help ageing individuals maintain a sense of satisfaction in their lives. Through the ageing process many changes will occur, such as losing the right to drive a car. This can cause a decrease in satisfaction in the lives of the individual.

Humour helps to alleviate this decrease of satisfaction by allowing the humour to release stress and anxiety caused by changes in the individuals life. In an article published in Nature Reviews Neuroscience, it is reported that a study’s results indicate that humour is rooted in the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex. Surprise is a component of humour. Humour can be verbal, visual, or physical. Most sight gags fit into one or more of these categories.

Some theoreticians of the comic consider exaggeration to be a universal comic device. It may take different forms in different genres, but all rely on the fact that the easiest way to make things laughable is to exaggerate to the point of absurdity their salient traits. Different cultures have different typical expectations of humour so comedy shows are not always successful when transplanted into another culture. Caricaturing Culture in India: Cartoons and History of the Modern World. Seth Benedict Graham A cultural analysis of the Russo-Soviet Anekdot 2003 p.

Harbsmeier, “Confucius-Ridens, Humor in the Analects. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 50. Jocelyn Chey and Jessica Milner Davis, eds. Archived from the original on 2016-10-02. Jessica Milner Davis and Jocelyn Chey, eds. Heterosexual romantic preferences: The importance of humor and physical attractiveness for different types of relationships”. Higher Education Lecturing and Humor: From Perspectives to Strategies”.

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Student perceptions of traits desired in themselves as dating and marriage partners”. Sex differences among partner preferences: Are the sexes really very similar? Evolution, traits, and the stages of the parental investment model”. The influence of humour on desirability”. Preserving Subjective Wellbeing in the Face of Psychopathology: Buffering Effects of Personal Strengths and Resources”.

Laughter and stress in daily life: Relation to positive and negative affect”. Individual differences in uses of humor and their relation to psychological well-being: Development of the humor styles questionnaire”. Humor is not always the best medicine: Specific components of sense of humor and psychological well-being”. Humor: International journal of Humor Research. Do cheerfulness, exhilaration, and humor production moderate pain tolerance? Humor and Laughter May Influence Health IV. Humor and Laughter May Influence Health: III.

Mirth and oxygen saturation levels of peripheral blood”. Benefits of humor in reduction of threat-induced anxiety”. Healthy humour: Using humour to cope at work”. Kōtuitui: New Zealand Journal of Social Sciences Online. A consideration of workplace fun and engagement”.

Differentiation of Emotions in Laughter at the Behavioural Level. Finding Comfort in a Joke: Consolatory Effects of Humor Through Cognitive Distraction”. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. A study of laughter and dissociation: Distinct correlates of laughter and smiling during bereavement”.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Humor and Aging Well: A Laughing Matter or a Matter of Laughing? The neural basis of humour processing”. Dialogic ethics and the virtue of humor”, Journal of Political Philosophy, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Vol.