How do you spell the letters of the alphabet in German?
This page has been archived and is no longer updated. Find how do you spell the letters of the alphabet in German? more about page archiving. The German alphabet has 26 letters plus 3 umlauts.
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Döts and a sharp s The modern German alphabet’s based on the Latin alphabet, consisting of 26 base letters. Swiss German, which opts for double s instead. Strange sounds The German e, eg. The e sounds like the vowel in English ‘egg’, keeping your lips widely spread. The German i sounds like the ‘ee’ in the English word ‘feet’. The German final e is never silent, but very short, e. Don’t confuse it with the the German ie, which sounds like ‘ee’.
The good news is that, with only a few exceptions, German consonants are very similar to their English equivalents. High German’, which is regarded as “proper” spoken German. On the other hand, there are different varieties of standard German. The main distinction is between Austrian, German and Swiss German. Local dialects are numerous and widely spread.
North of Germany would struggle to hold a conversation with a speaker of Bavarian from the South of Germany, who would on his part have less problems understanding someone speaking in an Austrian dialect. As the result of German migration, a number of German dialects are spoken in North- and South-America, eg. Pennsylvania Dutch, which isn’t Dutch at all but a German dialect that indicates how German was spoken in the 18th century, when their ancestors left Germany. German Steps An online German course for beginners in 12 weeks. Learn all the basics and get a certificate. The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. While you will be able to view the content of this page in your current browser, you will not be able to get the full visual experience.
Diacritic is primarily an adjective, though sometimes used as a noun, whereas diacritical is only ever an adjective. The main use of diacritical marks in the Latin script is to change the sound-values of the letters to which they are added. In Gaelic type, a dot over a consonant indicates lenition of the consonant in question. In other alphabetic systems, diacritical marks may perform other functions.
Greek diacritical marks, which showed that letters of the alphabet were being used as numerals. This varies from language to language, and may vary from case to case within a language. In some cases, letters are used as “in-line diacritics”, with the same function as ancillary glyphs, in that they modify the sound of the letter preceding them, as in the case of the “h” in the English pronunciation of “sh” and “th”. The tilde, dot, comma, titlo, apostrophe, bar, and colon are sometimes diacritical marks, but also have other uses. Not all diacritics occur adjacent to the letter they modify. In the Wali language of Ghana, for example, an apostrophe indicates a change of vowel quality, but occurs at the beginning of the word, as in the dialects ’Bulengee and ’Dolimi. Because of vowel harmony, all vowels in a word are affected, so the scope of the diacritic is the entire word.
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The j, originally a variant of i, inherited the tittle. Serve a grammatical role in Arabic. The sign ـً is most commonly written in combination with alif, e. Comes most commonly at the beginning of a word. Indicates a type of hamza that is pronounced only when the letter is read at the beginning of the talk.
A written replacement for a hamza that is followed by an alif, i. This writing rule does not apply when the alif that follows a hamza is not a part of the stem of the word, e. A replacement for an original alif that is dropped in the writing out of some rare words, e. At the last letter of a word, the vowel point reflects the inflection case or conjugation mood. For nouns, The ḍamma is for the nominative, fatḥa for the accusative, and kasra for the genitive.
For verbs, the ḍamma is for the imperfective, fatḥa for the perfective, and the sukūn is for verbs in the imperative or jussive moods. Genesis 1:9 “And God said, Let the waters be collected”. They were written to the left of a syllable in vertical writing and above a syllable in horizontal writing. The South Korean government officially revised the romanization of the Korean language in July 2000 to eliminate diacritics. Here क is shown with vowel diacritics.
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Aramaic schwa that became lost later on at some point in the development of Syriac. Some non-alphabetic scripts also employ symbols that function essentially as diacritics. Emoticons are commonly created with diacritic symbols, especially Japanese emoticons on popular imageboards. Different languages use different rules to put diacritic characters in alphabetical order. French treats letters with diacritical marks the same as the underlying letter for purposes of ordering and dictionaries. The Scandinavian languages, by contrast, treat the characters with diacritics ä, ö and å as new and separate letters of the alphabet, and sort them after z. Also, aa, when used as an alternative spelling to å, is sorted as such.
Languages that treat accented letters as variants of the underlying letter usually alphabetize words with such symbols immediately after similar unmarked words. In Spanish, the grapheme ñ is considered a new letter different from n and collated between n and o, as it denotes a different sound from that of a plain n. For a comprehensive list of the collating orders in various languages, see Collating sequence. Modern computer technology was developed mostly in English-speaking countries, so data formats, keyboard layouts, etc.
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English, a language with an alphabet without diacritical marks. This has led to fears internationally that the marks and accents may be made obsolete to facilitate the worldwide exchange of data. Depending on the keyboard layout, which differs amongst countries, it is more or less easy to enter letters with diacritics on computers and typewriters. On computers, the availability of code pages determines whether one can use certain diacritics. The following languages have letters that contain diacritics that are considered independent letters distinct from those without diacritics.
Other diacritics used in Manx included â, ê, ï, etc. Irish uses only acute accents to mark long vowels, following the 1948 spelling reform. The circumflex is used to mark long vowels, but usually only when the vowel length is not predictable by phonology. Belarusian, Bulgarian, Russian and Ukrainian have the letter й. Belarusian and Russian have the letter ё. In Russian, this letter is usually replaced by е, although it has a different pronunciation.
The use of е instead of ё does not affect the pronunciation. The Cyrillic Ukrainian alphabet has the letters ґ, й and ї. Macedonian has the letters ќ and ѓ. The acute accent ” ́” above any vowel in Cyrillic alphabets is used in dictionaries, books for children and foreign learners to indicate the word stress, it also can be used for disambiguation of similarly spelled words with different lexical stresses. Estonian “dotted vowels” ä, ö, ü are similar to German, but these are also distinct letters, not like German umlauted letters.
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All four have their own place in the alphabet, between w and x. It also uses the characters å, š and ž in foreign names and loanwords. Livonian has the following letters: ā, ä, ǟ, ḑ, ē, ī, ļ, ņ, ō, ȯ, ȱ, õ, ȭ, ŗ, š, ț, ū, ž. Icelandic uses acutes and other special letters. Danish and Norwegian uses additional characters like the o-slash ø and the a-overring å. These letters come after z and æ in the order ø, å.
Leonese: could use ñ or nn. These characters are collated after their non-diacritic equivalent. Portuguese uses the circumflex and the acute accent to indicate stress and vowel height whenever it is in an unpredictable location within the word. They can also function as a way to distinguish a few homographs. Polish has the following letters: ą ć ę ł ń ó ś ź ż.
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The basic Slovenian alphabet has the symbols č, š, and ž, which are considered separate letters and are listed as such in dictionaries and other contexts in which words are listed according to alphabetical order. Crimean Tatar includes the distinct Turkish alphabet letters Ç, Ğ, I, İ, Ö, Ş and Ü. Gagauz includes the distinct Turkish alphabet letters Ç, Ğ, I, İ, Ö and Ü. In Turkish each of these are separate letters, rather than versions of other letters, where dotted capital İ and lower case i are the same letter, as are dotless capital I and lowercase ı. Turkmen includes the distinct Turkish alphabet letters Ç, Ö, Ş and Ü. They are placed next to the most similar letters in the alphabet, c and e correspondingly. Esperanto has the symbols ŭ, ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ and ŝ, which are included in the alphabet, and considered separate letters.
The kahakô over a vowel can completely change the meaning of a word that is spelled the same but without the kahakô. Kurdish uses the symbols Ç, Ê, Î, Ş and Û with other 26 standard Latin alphabet symbols. Lakota alphabet uses the caron for the letters č, ȟ, ǧ, š, and ž. It also uses the acute accent for stressed vowels á, é, í, ó, ú, áŋ, íŋ, úŋ.
H with an extra horizontal bar. For uppercase H, the extra bar is written slightly above the usual bar. The above characters are considered separate letters. Blackboard used in class at Harvard shows students’ efforts at placing the ü and acute accent diacritic used in Spanish orthography. English is one of the few European languages that does not have many words that contain diacritical marks. In certain personal names such as Renée and Zoë, often two spellings exist, and the preference will be known only to those close to the person themselves. Even when the name of a person is spelled with a diacritic, like Charlotte Brontë, this may be dropped in less careful sources such as webpages.
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The following languages have letter-diacritic combinations that are not considered independent letters. Aymara uses a diacritical horn over p, q, t, k, ch. For example, in ruïne it means that the u and the i are separately pronounced in their usual way, and not in the way that the combination ui is normally pronounced. Thus it works as a separation sign and not as an indication for an alternative version of the i. Non-Faroese accented letters are not added to the Faroese alphabet.
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These include é, ö, ü, å and recently also letters like š, ł, and ć. Filipino has the following composite characters: á, à, â, é, è, ê, í, ì, î, ó, ò, ô, ú, ù, û. The actual use of diacritics for Filipino is, however uncommon, meant only to distinguish between homonyms with different stresses and meanings that either occur near each other in a text or to aid the reader in ascertaining its otherwise ambiguous meaning. Carons in š and ž appear only in foreign proper names and loanwords, but may be substituted with sh or zh if and only if it is technically impossible to produce accented letters in the medium.
Contrary to Estonian, š and ž are not considered distinct letters in Finnish. German uses the three umlauted characters ä, ö and ü. Due to this history, “ä”, “ö” and “ü” can be written as “ae”, “oe” and “ue” respectively, if the umlaut letters are not available. Hebrew has many various diacritic marks known as niqqud that are used above and below script to represent vowels. These must be distinguished from cantillation, which are keys to pronunciation and syntax.