Music education is a field of study associated with the teaching and music Education of music. During the 20th century, many distinctive approaches were developed or further refined for the teaching of music, some of which have had widespread impact.
20th century by Swiss musician and educator Émile Jaques-Dalcroze. The Suzuki method creates the same environment for learning music that a person has for learning their native language. Gordon Music Learning Theory provides the music teacher with a method for teaching musicianship through audiation, Gordon’s term for hearing music in the mind with understanding. At the university level, students in most arts and humanities programs receive academic credit for music courses such as music history, typically of Western art music, or music appreciation, which focuses on listening and learning about different musical styles. The study of western art music is increasingly common in music education outside of North America and Europe, including Asian nations such as South Korea, Japan, and China. Music education also takes place in individualized, lifelong learning, and in community contexts.
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Both amateur and professional musicians typically take music lessons, short private sessions with an individual teacher. While instructional strategies are determined by the music teacher and the music curriculum in his or her area, many teachers rely heavily on one of many instructional methodologies that emerged in recent generations and developed rapidly during the latter half of the 20th Century. The Dalcroze method was developed in the early 20th century by Swiss musician and educator Émile Jaques-Dalcroze. Depiction of Curwen’s Solfège hand signs. This version includes the tonal tendencies and interesting titles for each tone. Hungarian music educator and composer who stressed the benefits of physical instruction and response to music. Carl Orff was a prominent German composer.
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Orff Schulwerk is considered an “approach” to music education. It begins with a student’s innate abilities to engage in rudimentary forms of music, using basic rhythms and melodies. Orff considers the whole body a percussive instrument and students are led to develop their music abilities in a way that parallels the development of western music. The Suzuki method was developed by Shinichi Suzuki in Japan shortly after World War II, and uses music education to enrich the lives and moral character of its students. In addition to the four major international methods described above, other approaches have been influential. Edwin Gordon’s Music Learning Theory is based on an extensive body of research and field testing by Edwin E. Gordon and others in the larger field of Music Learning Theory.
The growth of cultural diversity within school-age populations prompted music educators from the 1960s onward to diversify the music curriculum, and to work with ethnomusicologists and artist-musicians to establish instructional practices rooted in musical traditions. Influenced by both the Kodály method and Gordon’s Music Learning Theory, Conversational Solfège was developed by Dr. Feierabend, former chair of music education at the Hartt School, University of Hartford. The program begins by immersing students in the musical literature of their own culture, in this case American. Australian music educator Neil Moore founded Simply Music on the core belief that all humans are naturally musical.
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Simply Music offers programs for students from birth through old age, with the stated goal that “students acquire and retain music as a lifelong companion. This early-childhood approach, sometimes referred to as the Sensory-Motor Approach to Music, was developed by the violinist Madeleine Carabo-Cone. This approach involves using props, costumes, and toys for children to learn basic musical concepts of staff, note duration, and the piano keyboard. The concrete environment of the specially planned classroom allows the child to learn the fundamentals of music by exploring through touch.
Popular music pedagogy’ — alternatively called rock music pedagogy, modern band, popular music education, or rock music education — is a recent development in music education consisting of the systematic teaching and learning of rock music and other forms of popular music both inside and outside formal classroom settings. The Manhattanville Music Curriculum Project was developed in 1965 as a response to declining student interest in school music. This creative approach aims to shape attitudes, helping students see music not as static content to be mastered, but as personal, current, and evolving. Rather than imparting factual knowledge, this method centers around the student, who learns through investigation, experimentation, and discovery. During its tenure, the Mumbai-based Boss School of Music developed a proprietary method of education using audio-visual technology, simplified concepts, and specially designed musical equipment. After the preaching of Reverend Thomas Symmes, the first singing school was created in 1717 in Boston for the purposes of improving singing and music reading in the church.
These singing schools gradually spread throughout the colonies. Music education continued to flourish with the creation of the Academy of Music in Boston. Music began to spread as a curricular subject into other school districts. Soon after music expanded to all grade levels and the teaching of music reading was improved until the music curriculum grew to include several activities in addition to music reading. By the end of 1864 public school music had spread throughout the country.
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In 1832, Lowell Mason and George Webb formed the Boston Academy of Music with the purposes of teaching singing and theory as well as methods of teaching music. In the United States, teaching colleges with four-year degree programs developed from the Normal Schools and included music. Oberlin Conservatory first offered the Bachelor of Music Education degree. Rise of the school band and orchestra movement leading to performance oriented school music programs.
Frances Elliot Clark develops and promotes phonograph record libraries for school use. Carl Seashore and his Measures of Musical Talent music aptitude test starts testing people in music. A student-centered philosophy was formally espoused by MENC. Increased curricular focus on science, math, technology with less emphasis on music education.
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The purpose of the project was to make contemporary music relevant in children by placing quality composers and performers in the learning environment. Leads to the Comprehensive Musicianship movement. Federally supported development of arts education focusing on quality music classroom literature. Juilliard Project leads to the compilation and publication of musical works from major historical eras for elementary and secondary schools. Federal financial support and recognition of the value music has in society.
Establishment of a unified and eclectic philosophy of music education. Specific emphasis on youth music, special education music, urban music, and electronic music. 35 Objectives listed by MENC for quality music education programs in public schools. Published and recommended for music educators to follow. Emphasized the impact of learning theory in music education in the areas of: auditory perception, motor learning, child development, cognitive skills, memory processing, affect, and motivation. Growing out of the awareness of the increasing diversity of the American School population, the three-day Symposium for music teachers was co-sponsored by MENC, the Society for Ethnomusicology, and the Smithsonian Institution, in order to provide models, materials, and methods for teaching music of the world’s cultures to school children and youth. For much of the 1980s, there was a call for educational reform and accountability in all curricular subjects.
This led to the National Standards for Music Education introduced by MENC. The MENC standards were adopted by some states, while other states have produced their own standards or largely eschewed the standards movement. Reflected on the 40 years of change in music education since the first Tanglewood Symposium of 1967, developing a declaration regarding priorities for the next forty years. The National Standards created in 1994 were revised with an emphasis on musical literacy. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, social aspects of teaching and learning music came to the fore. This emerged as praxial music education, critical theory, and feminist theory. Institutional music education was started in colonial India by Rabindranath Tagore after he founded the Visva-Bharati University.
The South African Department of Education and the ILAM Music Heritage Project SA teach African music using western musical framework. 14 is “unique” in teaching curriculum requirements for western music using recordings of traditional African music. From the time that Africa was colonized up to 1994, indigenous music and arts being taught in schools was a rare occurrence. In African cultures music is seen as a community experience and is used for social and religious occasions. As soon as children show some sign of being able to handle music or a musical instrument they are allowed to participate with the adults of the community in musical events.
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Traditional songs are more important to many people because they are stories about the histories of the indigenous peoples. This section needs additional citations for verification. Among the Aztecs, Mayans, and Incas, music was used in ceremonies and rituals to teach the history of their civilizations and was also used for worship. The Aztec people were mainly educated by their priests.
Music remained an important way to teach religion and history and was taught by priests for many centuries. When Spain and Portugal colonized parts of South America, music started to be influenced by European ideas and qualities. Music education in Latin America today has large emphasis on folk music, masses, and orchestral music. Many classrooms teach their choirs to sing in their native language as well as in English. Several Latin American Schools, specifically in Puerto Rico and Haiti, believe music to be an important subject and are working on expanding their programs. Outside of school, many communities form their own musical groups and organizations. The music, languages, and sounds we are exposed to within our own cultures determine our tastes in music and affect the way we perceive the music of other cultures.
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Many studies have shown distinct differences in the preferences and abilities of musicians from around the world. One study attempted to view the distinctions between the musical preferences of English and Japanese speakers, providing both groups of people with the same series of tones and rhythms. Another study had Europeans and Africans try to tap along with certain rhythms. European rhythms are regular and built on simple ratios, while African rhythms are typically based on irregular ratios. While both groups of people could perform the rhythms with European qualities, the European group struggled with the African rhythms.
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This has to do with the ubiquity of complex polyrhythm in African culture and their familiarity with this type of sound. While each culture has its own musical qualities and appeals, incorporating cross-cultural curricula in our music classrooms can help teach students how to better perceive music from other cultures. Studies show that learning to sing folk songs or popular music of other cultures is an effective way to understand a culture as opposed to merely learning about it. Achievement standards are curricular statements used to guide educators in determining objectives for their teaching.
Use of standards became a common practice in many nations during the 20th century. For much of its existence, the curriculum for music education in the United States was determined locally or by individual teachers. Singing, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music. Performing on instruments, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music.
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Composing and arranging music within specified guidelines. Listening to, analyzing, and describing music. Understanding relationships between music, the other arts, and disciplines outside the arts. Understanding music in relation to history and culture. Many states and school districts have adopted their own standards for music education.