Testing for Racial Differences in the Mental Ability of Young Children
Scores from intelligence tests are estimates of intelligence. Unlike, for example, distance and mass, a concrete measure of intelligence cannot be achieved given the abstract nature of the concept of “intelligence”. IQ scores are used for educational placement, assessment of intellectual disability, and testing for Racial Differences in the Mental Ability of Young Children job applicants.
Even when students improve their scores on standardized tests, they do not always improve their cognitive abilities, such as memory, attention and speed. Historically, even before IQ tests were devised, there were attempts to classify people into intelligence categories by observing their behavior in daily life. The English statistician Francis Galton made the first attempt at creating a standardized test for rating a person’s intelligence. French psychologist Alfred Binet, together with Victor Henri and Théodore Simon had more success in 1905, when they published the Binet-Simon test, which focused on verbal abilities. Goddard published a translation of it in 1910.
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The many different kinds of IQ tests include a wide variety of item content. Some test items are visual, while many are verbal. Test items vary from being based on abstract-reasoning problems to concentrating on arithmetic, vocabulary, or general knowledge. The British psychologist Charles Spearman in 1904 made the first formal factor analysis of correlations between the tests. Spearman’s argument proposing a general factor of human intelligence is still accepted in principle by many psychometricians. During World War I, a way was needed to evaluate and assign Army recruits to appropriate tasks. This led to the development of several mental tests by Robert Yerkes, who worked with major hereditarians of American psychometrics—including Terman, Goddard—to write the test.
At the start of the war, the army and national guard maintained nine thousand officers. By the end, two hundred thousand officers presided, and two- thirds of them had started their careers in training camps where the tests were applied. In some camps, no man scoring below C could be considered for officer training. 75 million men were tested in total, making the results the first mass-produced written tests of intelligence, though considered dubious and non-usable, for reasons including high variability of test implementation throughout different camps and questions testing for familiarity with American culture rather than intelligence. The results of these tests, which at the time reaffirmed contemporary racism and nationalism, are considered controversial and dubious, having rested on certain contested assumptions: that intelligence was heritable, innate, and could be relegated to a single number, the tests were enacted systematically, and test questions actually tested for innate intelligence rather than subsuming environmental factors.
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While not widely used, Thurstone’s model influenced later theories. David Wechsler produced the first version of his test in 1939. It gradually became more popular and overtook the Stanford-Binet in the 1960s. It has been revised several times, as is common for IQ tests, to incorporate new research. One explanation is that psychologists and educators wanted more information than the single score from the Binet. Wechsler’s ten or more subtests provided this. Eugenics refers to the principles of heredity used to improve the human race.
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Francis Galton first used the term in the late 1800s. The eugenics movement was popular in the US in the 1920s and 1930s. Different from Galton, who promoted eugenics through selective breeding for positive traits, Goddard went with the US eugenics movement to eliminate “undesirable” traits. Goddard coined the word “feeblemindedness” to refer to people who did not perform well in the test and thus were intellectually inferior. Noteworthily, California’s sterilization program was so effective that the Nazi turned to the government for advice to eliminate the birth of the “unfit”. The US eugenics movement lost its momentum in 1940s and was halted by the horrors of Nazi Germany.
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Psychologist Raymond Cattell defined fluid and crystallized intelligence and authored the Cattell Culture Fair III IQ test. The second stratum consists of broad abilities. It has greatly influenced many of the current broad IQ tests. Under it are ten broad abilities that in turn are subdivided into seventy narrow abilities. Modern tests do not necessarily measure all of these broad abilities. For example, Gq and Grw may be seen as measures of school achievement and not IQ. Gt may be difficult to measure without special equipment.
It argued that only looking at one general factor was inadequate for researchers and clinicians who worked with learning disabilities, attention disorders, intellectual disability, and interventions for such disabilities. Simultaneous processing involves the integration of stimuli into a group and requires the observation of relationships. Successive processing involves the integration of stimuli into serial order. Normalized IQ distribution with mean 100 and standard deviation 15. There are a variety of individually administered IQ tests in use in the English-speaking world. On a related note, this fixed standard deviation means that the proportion of the population who have IQs in a particular range is theoretically fixed, and current Wechsler tests only give Full Scale IQs between 40 and 160.
This should be borne in mind when considering reports of people with much higher IQs. Psychometricians generally regard IQ tests as having high statistical reliability. IQ scores can differ to some degree for the same person on different IQ tests, so a person does not always belong to the same IQ score range each time the person is tested. Since the early 20th century, raw scores on IQ tests have increased in most parts of the world. Researchers have been exploring the issue of whether the Flynn effect is equally strong on performance of all kinds of IQ test items, whether the effect may have ended in some developed nations, whether there are social subgroup differences in the effect, and what possible causes of the effect might be.
IQ can change to some degree over the course of childhood. 96 with the mean scores of tests at ages 11, 12, and 13. For decades, practitioners’ handbooks and textbooks on IQ testing have reported IQ declines with age after the beginning of adulthood. However, later researchers pointed out this phenomenon is related to the Flynn effect and is in part a cohort effect rather than a true aging effect. The exact peak age of fluid intelligence or crystallized intelligence remains elusive. Subsequently, intelligence seems to decline slowly.
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Environmental and genetic factors play a role in determining IQ. Their relative importance has been the subject of much research and debate. Heritability is defined as the proportion of variance in a trait which is attributable to genotype within a defined population in a specific environment. A number of points must be considered when interpreting heritability.
The general figure for the heritability of IQ, according to an authoritative American Psychological Association report, is 0. 45 for children, and rises to around 0. 75 for late adolescents and adults. This shared family environment accounts for 0. 35 of the variation in IQ in childhood. The effect for several other psychological traits is similar.
These studies have not looked at the effects of extreme environments, such as in abusive families. Although parents treat their children differently, such differential treatment explains only a small amount of nonshared environmental influence. One suggestion is that children react differently to the same environment because of different genes. More likely influences may be the impact of peers and other experiences outside the family. A very large proportion of the over 17,000 human genes are thought to have an effect on the development and functionality of the brain. While a number of individual genes have been reported to be associated with IQ, none have a strong effect. David Rowe reported an interaction of genetic effects with socioeconomic status, such that the heritability was high in high-SES families, but much lower in low-SES families.
IQ initiate an environment-shaping feedback cycle, with genetic effects causing bright children to seek out more stimulating environments that then further increase their IQ. In Dickens’ model, environment effects are modeled as decaying over time. In this model, the Flynn effect can be explained by an increase in environmental stimulation independent of it being sought out by individuals. In general, educational interventions, as those described below, have shown short-term effects on IQ, but long-term follow-up is often missing. For example, in the US very large intervention programs such as the Head Start Program have not produced lasting gains in IQ scores. Recent studies have shown that training in using one’s working memory may increase IQ.
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A study on young adults published in April 2008 by a team from the Universities of Michigan and Bern supports the possibility of the transfer of fluid intelligence from specifically designed working memory training. Musical training in childhood has been found to correlate with higher than average IQ. It is popularly thought that listening to classical music raises IQ. Several neurophysiological factors have been correlated with intelligence in humans, including the ratio of brain weight to body weight and the size, shape, and activity level of different parts of the brain. Specific features that may affect IQ include the size and shape of the frontal lobes, the amount of blood and chemical activity in the frontal lobes, the total amount of gray matter in the brain, the overall thickness of the cortex, and the glucose metabolic rate. Health is important in understanding differences in IQ test scores and other measures of cognitive ability.
Such impairment may sometimes be permanent, sometimes be partially or wholly compensated for by later growth. They have postulated that fighting infectious diseases strains the child’s metabolism and prevents full brain development. Developed nations have implemented several health policies regarding nutrients and toxins known to influence cognitive function. Improvements in nutrition, and in public policy in general, have been implicated in worldwide IQ increases. Cognitive epidemiology is a field of research that examines the associations between intelligence test scores and health. Researchers in the field argue that intelligence measured at an early age is an important predictor of later health and mortality differences.
The American Psychological Association’s report “Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns” states that wherever it has been studied, children with high scores on tests of intelligence tend to learn more of what is taught in school than their lower-scoring peers. The correlation between IQ scores and grades is about . It has been found that the correlation of IQ scores with school performance depends on the IQ measurement used. In contrast, Performance IQ correlation with the same GPA was only 0. According to Schmidt and Hunter, “for hiring employees without previous experience in the job the most valid predictor of future performance is general mental ability. In establishing a causal direction to the link between IQ and work performance, longitudinal studies by Watkins and others suggest that IQ exerts a causal influence on future academic achievement, whereas academic achievement does not substantially influence future IQ scores.
The US military has minimum enlistment standards at about the IQ 85 level. There have been two experiments with lowering this to 80 but in both cases these men could not master soldiering well enough to justify their costs. While it has been suggested that “in economic terms it appears that the IQ score measures something with decreasing marginal value. The link from IQ to wealth is much less strong than that from IQ to job performance. Some studies indicate that IQ is unrelated to net worth. Statistical controls for parental SES eliminate about a quarter of this predictive power.
Psychometric intelligence appears as only one of a great many factors that influence social outcomes. IQ and income to be about 0. On pg 568 of The g Factor, Arthur Jensen claims that although the correlation between IQ and income averages a moderate 0. A 2002 study further examined the impact of non-IQ factors on income and concluded that an individual’s location, inherited wealth, race, and schooling are more important as factors in determining income than IQ. Arthur Jensen cited data which showed that, regardless of race, people with IQs between 70 and 90 have higher crime rates than people with IQs below or above this range, with the peak range being between 80 and 90.
The 2009 Handbook of Crime Correlates stated that reviews have found that around eight IQ points, or 0. 5 SD, separate criminals from the general population, especially for persistent serious offenders. It has been suggested that this simply reflects that “only dumb ones get caught” but there is similarly a negative relation between IQ and self-reported offending. A study of the relationship between US county-level IQ and US county-level crime rates found that higher average IQs were associated with lower levels of property crime, burglary, larceny rate, motor vehicle theft, violent crime, robbery, and aggravated assault. These results were not “confounded by a measure of concentrated disadvantage that captures the effects of race, poverty, and other social disadvantages of the county. The American Psychological Association’s 1995 report Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns stated that the correlations for most “negative outcome” variables are typically smaller than 0.
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Multiple studies conducted in Scotland have found that higher IQs in early life are associated with lower mortality and morbidity rates later in life. There is considerable variation within and overlap among these categories. People with high IQs are found at all levels of education and occupational categories. The biggest difference occurs for low IQs with only an occasional college graduate or professional scoring below 90. With operationalization and methodology derived from the general intelligence factor g, a new scientific understanding of collective intelligence, defined as a group’s general ability to perform a wide range of tasks, aims to explain intelligent behavior of groups. Among the most controversial issues related to the study of intelligence is the observation that intelligence measures such as IQ scores vary between ethnic and racial groups and sexes.
While there is little scholarly debate about the existence of some of these differences, their causes remain highly controversial both within academia and in the public sphere. Most IQ tests are constructed so that there are no overall score differences between females and males. Popular IQ batteries such as the WAIS and the WISC-R are also constructed in order to eliminate sex differences. The 1996 Task Force investigation on Intelligence sponsored by the American Psychological Association concluded that there are significant variations in IQ across races. The problem of determining the causes underlying this variation relates to the question of the contributions of “nature and nurture” to IQ. A diagnosis of intellectual disability is in part based on the results of IQ testing. In the United Kingdom, the eleven plus exam which incorporated an intelligence test has been used from 1945 to decide, at eleven years of age, which type of school a child should go to.
They have been much less used since the widespread introduction of comprehensive schools. IQ is the most thoroughly researched means of measuring intelligence, and by far the most widely used in practical settings. However, while IQ strives to measure some concepts of intelligence, it may fail to serve as an accurate measure of broader definitions of intelligence. Critics such as Keith Stanovich do not dispute the reliability of IQ test scores or their capacity to predict some kinds of achievement, but argue that basing a concept of intelligence on IQ test scores alone neglects other important aspects of mental ability.
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Some scientists dispute the worthiness of IQ entirely. Stephen Jay Gould criticized IQ tests and argued that they were used for scientific racism. Gould has mistaken for “reification” is neither more nor less than the common practice in every science of hypothesizing explanatory models to account for the observed relationships within a given domain. Well known examples include the heliocentric theory of planetary motion, the Bohr atom, the electromagnetic field, the kinetic theory of gases, gravitation, quarks, Mendelian genes, mass, velocity, etc. Jensen also argued that even if g were replaced by a model with several intelligences this would change the situation less than expected. He argues that all tests of cognitive ability would continue to be highly correlated with one another and there would still be a black-white gap on cognitive tests.
Psychologist Peter Schönemann persistently criticized IQ, calling it “the IQ myth”. He argued that g is a flawed theory and that the high heritability estimates of IQ are based on false assumptions. The American Psychological Association’s report Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns stated that in the United States IQ tests as predictors of social achievement are not biased against African Americans since they predict future performance, such as school achievement, similarly to the way they predict future performance for Caucasians. However, IQ tests may well be biased when used in other situations. A 2005 study stated that “differential validity in prediction suggests that the WAIS-R test may contain cultural influences that reduce the validity of the WAIS-R as a measure of cognitive ability for Mexican American students,” indicating a weaker positive correlation relative to sampled white students. According to a 2006 article by the National Center for Biotechnology Information, contemporary psychological research often did not reflect substantial recent developments in psychometrics and “bears an uncanny resemblance to the psychometric state of the art as it existed in the 1950s.
In this paper, the representatives of the association regret that IQ-related works are frequently written with a view to their political consequences: “research findings were often assessed not so much on their merits or their scientific standing as on their supposed political implications”. The task force concluded that IQ scores do have high predictive validity for individual differences in school achievement. They confirm the predictive validity of IQ for adult occupational status, even when variables such as education and family background have been statistically controlled. They stated that individual differences in intelligence are substantially influenced by both genetics and environment. The report stated that a number of biological factors, including malnutrition, exposure to toxic substances, and various prenatal and perinatal stressors, result in lowered psychometric intelligence under at least some conditions. The Flynn effect shows that environmental factors can produce differences of at least this magnitude, but that effect is mysterious in its own right. The APA journal that published the statement, American Psychologist, subsequently published eleven critical responses in January 1997, several of them arguing that the report failed to examine adequately the evidence for partly genetic explanations.
The ideas on the zone of development were later developed in a number of psychological and educational theories and practices. IQ classification is the practice used by IQ test publishers for designating IQ score ranges into various categories with labels such as “superior” or “average. IQ classification was preceded historically by attempts to classify human beings by general ability based on other forms of behavioral observation. Mensa International is perhaps the best known of these. Glossary of Important Assessment and Measurement Terms.
Philadelphia, PA: National Council on Measurement in Education. 5 “As mental testing expanded to the evaluation of adolescents and adults, however, there was a need for a measure of intelligence that did not depend upon mental age. Low Childhood IQ and Early Adult Mortality: The Role of Explanatory Factors in the 1958 British Birth Cohort”. Study: High Standardized Test Scores Don’t Translate to Better Cognition”. 79 “What do the above IQ’s imply in such terms as feeble-mindedness, border-line intelligence, dullness, normality, superior intelligence, genius, etc. 37 “The earliest classifications of intelligence were very rough ones.
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To a large extent they were practical attempts to define various patterns of behavior in medical-legal terms. The development of Francis Galton’s ideas on the mechanism of heredity”. Journal of the History of Biology. Francis Galton on twins, heredity and social class”. British Journal for the History of Science.
Biographical origins of Francis Galton’s psychology”. 21 “Galton’s so-called intelligence test was misnamed. Sir Francis Galton and the birth of eugenics”. On the origins of intelligence as a psychological object”.
This is an open access article, made freely available by Elsevier. The Stanford revision of the Binet-Simon scale and some results from its application to 1000 non-selected children”. The new clinical psychology and the psycho-clinicist”. Howard Andrew Knox and the origins of performance testing on Ellis Island, 1912-1916″. Military Psychology: Clinical and Operational Applications. From then to now: The development of industrial-organizational psychology in the United States”.
Testing the Army’s Intelligence: Psychologists and the Military in World War I”. Human testing, the eugenics movement, and IRBs”. The birth of American intelligence testing”. The Horrifying American Roots of Nazi Eugenics”. Human cognitive abilities: A survey of factor-analytic studies. Simultaneous and successive synthesis: An alternative model for cognitive abilities”.
Planning, attention, simultaneous, and successive cognitive processes as a model for assessment”. Test Review: Review of Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Second Edition Kaufman, A. Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Second Edition. The WISC-III Companion: A Guide to Interpretation and Educational Intervention. An IQ score is not an equal-interval score, as is evident in Table A.