The development of intelligence in children (the Binet-Simon scale)

The development of intelligence in children (the Binet-Simon scale)

28th October 2018OffByRiseNews

Articles 30 Turning in their graves? 23 Tricks the development of intelligence in children (the Binet-Simon scale) the Trade: whatever happened to teacher professionalism? 18 Time to Rethink Religious Education? 17 King’s Manor School – an experiment in privatisation?

16 New Labour – New Values? 14 Educational Philosophy: does it exist in the 1990s? 11 The Multifaith Society: problem or opportunity? 10 Agreed Syllabuses 1944-1988: Changing aims – changing content? 6 Whatever happened to the integrated curriculum? 5 Is the core curriculum ideal valid and feasible? 2 School Governing Bodies: do they have a clear role?

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1 The Chief Education Officer: the real master of local educational provision? You are welcome to download it and print it for your own personal use, or for use in a school or other educational establishment, provided my name as the author is attached. But you may not publish it, upload it onto any other website, or sell it, without my permission. You are welcome to cite this piece. Us and Them: a history of pupil grouping policies in England’s schools www.

Introduction: terminology This article describes the ways in which pupils in England have been allocated to teaching groups during the period in which the state has provided education – roughly from 1860 to the present. It summarises relevant sections of government reports and white papers, the arguments made by educationists, and the findings of research projects. All this material is presented in chronological order. Up to 1900: Mass education and social class Human beings have always been obsessed with labelling one another. Skin colour, nationality, religion, gender, sexuality, political allegiance – all have been used to divide ‘us’ from ‘them’.

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In England, the most divisive and damaging of such criteria historically has been social class. 1900-1945: Notions of ‘intelligence’ As the state system of education developed and expanded, those who still objected to the idea of working class children being educated at all, and especially to the notion of children of different classes being educated together, looked around for other ways of segregating children. A number of developments came to their aid. 1945-1960: Doubts and concerns Concerns about the dangers of selection and streaming began even as the new system was being implemented. 1960s: Comprehensivisation and unstreaming Comprehensive reform gathered pace during the 1960s, though its implementation was halting and patchy. While it necessitated changes in curricula and pedagogy in all schools, its most immediate effect was undoubtedly on the primary schools. 1968-1979: The heyday of mixed ability teaching Mixed ability teaching was gaining in popularity in comprehensive schools, too.

1979-1997: Conservative attempts to introduce ‘differentiation’ It was against this background that Margaret Thatcher’s Conservative government came to power in 1979 determined to reintroduce eleven plus selection. The new government’s first White Paper Excellence in schools, published in July 1997, was to prove the opening salvo in a sustained campaign against the very concept of comprehensive education, which, it said, needed to be ‘reformed’ and ‘modernised’. Summary English society has always been divided on class lines. For centuries, such schools as existed catered almost exclusively for the middle and upper classes, and education for the masses was regarded as a dangerous idea. In the nineteenth century the needs of industry, commerce and international trade, and the extension of the right to vote, all forced the government to create a state education system. Apparently, ‘complex instruction’ was devised by Californian academics and is being pioneered in Britain by Professor Jo Boaler of Sussex University. Thirty years on – is comprehensive education alive and well or struggling to survive?

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Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon believed intelligence to be a learned entity. This test was formed in order to measure intelligence of children in accordance with their age. The test was used and varied among children from the ages of 3 years to 12 years. The score of a child was based on his or her composite score across various tests.

The emphasis here is on quantity of tests. Binet believed that one could not make solid conclusions about intelligence by only looking at how children score on one test. You must be logged in to post a comment. As a result, the web page is not displaying. If you are a visitor of this website: Please try again in a few minutes. Alfred Binet is best-known for his development of the first intelligence test.

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Learn more about how Binet developed the first intelligence test. Alfred Binet was a French psychologist best-remembered for developing the first widely used intelligence test. The test originated after the French government commissioned Binet to develop an instrument that could identify school kids that needed remedial studies. With his collaborator Theodore Simon, they created the Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale.

Lewis Terman later revised the scale and standardized the test with subjects drawn from an American sample and the test became known as the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales. The test is still in use today and remains one of the most widely used intelligence tests. Alfred Binet was born Alfredo Binetti on July 8, 1857 in Nice, France. His father, a physician, and his mother, an artist, divorced when he was young and Binet then moved to Paris with his mother. After graduating from law school in 1878, Binet initially planned to follow in his father’s footsteps and enroll in medical school. He began to study science at Sorbonne but soon began educating himself in psychology by reading works by individuals such as Charles Darwin and John Stuart Mill.

Afterward, he moved to a position at the Laboratory of Experimental Psychology where he was the associate director and researcher. In 1894, Binet was appointed the director of the lab and he remained in this position until his death in 1911. Binet’s early support of Charcot’s research on hypnotism resulted in professional embarrassment when Charcot’s ideas faltered under closer scientific evaluation. He soon turned his interest toward the study of development and intelligence, often basing his research on observations of his two daughters. While Alfred Binet’s interests were broad and quite diverse, he is most famously known for his work on the topic of intelligence.

Rather than focus on learned information such as math and reading, Binet instead concentrated on other mental abilities such as attention and memory. The scale they developed became known as the Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale. The test was later revised by psychologist Lewis Terman and became known as the Stanford-Binet. While Binet’s original intent was to use the test to identify children who needed additional academic assistance, the test soon became a means to identify those deemed “feeble-minded” by the eugenics movement. Eugenics was the belief that the human population could be genetically improved by controlling who was allowed to have children. By doing this, the eugenicists believed they could produce more desirable inherited characteristics.

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This shift in how the test was used in notable since Binet himself believed that the intelligence test he had designed had limitations. He believed that intelligence was complex and could not be fully captured by a single quantitative measure. He also believed that intelligence was not fixed. Perhaps most importantly, Binet also felt that such measures of intelligence were not always generalizable and could only apply to children with similar backgrounds and experiences. While his intelligence scale serves as the basis for modern intelligence tests, Binet himself did not believe that his test measured a permanent or inborn degree of intelligence.

According to Binet, an individual’s score can vary. New methods for the diagnosis of the intellectual level of subnormals. The development of intelligence in children. Vineland, NJ: Publications of the Training School at Vineland. Originally published 1905 in L’Année Psychologique, 12, 191-244. In His Own Words”Some recent philosophers seem to have given their moral approval to these deplorable verdicts that affirm that the intelligence of an individual is a fixed quantity, a quantity that cannot be augmented. Portraits of Pioneers in Psychology, Volume 3.

How Does the Weschsler Adult Intelligence Scale Measure Intelligence? Who Are Some of the More Famous Psychologists? What Are the Different Theories of Intelligence? What Is Considered a Low IQ Score and What Does It Mean? Is Your IQ Score Above Average? Do You Have a Genius IQ Score?

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What Are Piaget’s Four Stages of Development? Un exemple d’un type d’élément de test de QI, sur le modèle des éléments des matrices progressives de Raven. Le quotient intellectuel, ou QI, est le résultat d’un test psychométrique qui entend fournir une indication quantitative standardisée de l’intelligence humaine. Le QI est mesuré par un psychologue pour des raisons qui peuvent être éducatives ou psychiatriques. Cependant, le QI, tout comme les notions associées de déficience mentale ou d’enfant surdoué, ne sont pas des diagnostics. Le QI est généralement évalué dans le cadre plus complet d’un examen psychologique.

Articles détaillés : Échelle métrique de l’intelligence et Test Binet-Simon. En 1905 est publiée la première échelle mesurant l’intelligence, l’Échelle métrique de l’Intelligence d’Alfred Binet et Théodore Simon, ou test de Binet et Simon. Cette échelle donne lieu à la détermination d’un âge mental de l’enfant. Le QI égale le rapport entre l’âge mental divisé par l’âge chronologique et multiplié par 100.

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Conçu pour détecter et aider les enfants en difficulté, ce calcul n’est pas efficace pour évaluer un QI chez les adultes. Répartition de la population par QI standard suivant une courbe en cloche ou courbe de Gauss. Le QI par rang ou  QI standard  est calculé de manière différente. L’étalonnage est régulièrement mis à jour. C’est donc sur elle qu’on étalonne le test. Tous les tests fixent la moyenne à 100. Distribution de QI normalisé avec une moyenne de 100 et un écart type de 15.

La moyenne du QI standard est fixée à 100 pour des raisons arbitraires et historiques. Le QI doit être mesuré par un psychologue dûment qualifié. Sa mesure s’effectue dans le cadre d’un examen psychologique qui peut se dérouler sur plusieurs sessions. L’examen psychologique comprend un ou des entretiens psychologiques. Il appartient au psychologue de faire passer le test dans des conditions optimales pour la personne.

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De nombreux chercheurs s’intéressent à la mesure de l’intelligence. La première échelle de l’intelligence est publiée en 1905. En 1912 à l’Université de Breslau, l’Allemand William Stern a l’idée de faire le rapport entre les résultats obtenus au Binet-Simon et l’âge réel. Le calcul du QI tel que proposé par Stern pose plusieurs problèmes statistiques, le principal étant qu’il n’est pas applicable aux adultes.

Ainsi, la notion de quotient est conservée par Wechsler bien que ses calculs pour aboutir à ce quotient ne reposent plus sur une division mathématique. C’est donc pour des raisons historiques, et non pour des raisons mathématiques, que le terme de quotient intellectuel est conservé par Wechsler et reste utilisé de nos jours. La notion de facteur g mise en évidence par Spearman et la notion d’habiletés cognitives spécifiques mises en évidence par Thurstone, ont été étudiées et élaborées par les nombreuses études qui ont suivi. Les moyens technologiques ont évolué, et les tests d’intelligence se sont multipliés, permettant l’élaboration de modèles plus précis qui concilient les deux théories. Le QI mesuré par les tests psychométriques est le meilleur prédicteur statistique de la réussite ou de l’échec scolaire de l’enfant et de l’adolescent. Les corrélations entre le QI et la réussite scolaire ou académiques sont de l’ordre de 0. D’autres facteurs entrent en jeu dans la réussite scolaire puis professionnelle, cependant ces facteurs sont variés.

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L’effet Flynn est le nom attribué à l’accroissement lent et régulier du résultat moyen à des tests de type Q. Ce sont les tests les plus liés aux matières scolaires qui connaissent les plus faibles progressions. L’accroissement de la scolarité, et le niveau scolaire, jouent un rôle majeur dans l’augmentation des scores. La croissance des scores s’est stabilisée et des effets inverses ont été observés depuis le début des années 2000. Or la tendance à une stagnation voire à une légère régression de l’effet Flynn en Occident a été observée dans d’autres pays.

Le QI a parfois été instrumentalisé pour étayer des propositions élitistes, eugénistes, c’est pourquoi les études sur les différences de QI entre les groupes ont fait l’objet de débats passionnés car leurs conclusions pouvaient être reprises pour justifier le racisme. Herrnstein et Murray souligne et commente longuement les différences de QI entre groupes ethniques aux États-Unis, en particulier les scores plus faibles des minorités noires par rapport à la majorité blanche, et leurs implications politiques. Certains spécialistes ont avancé des explications qualifiées de racistes par d’autres spécialistes. De cette simple corrélation les auteurs racialistes concluent à une causalité, faisant fi de l’ effet cigogne , et arguent qu’un volume crânien plus grand cause un Q.

Des mesures physiologiques sont également corrélées au QI sans que les relations de cause à conséquence soient éclaircies. Les études sur les relations entre morphologie et réaction physiologiques cérébrales et le QI se sont multipliées dans des populations de tous âges, avec ou sans problèmes cognitifs. 69 pour les échelles de Wechsler et 0. Une autre méta-analyse indépendante a été publiée en 1997 dans le journal Nature.