The Impact of Montessori Kindergarten On Your Child”s Education
Italian physician and educator best known for the philosophy of education that bears her name, and her writing on scientific pedagogy. At an early age, Montessori broke gender barriers and expectations when she enrolled in classes at an all-boys technical school, with hopes of becoming an engineer. The Impact of Montessori Kindergarten On Your Child’s Education was born on August 31, 1870 in Chiaravalle, Italy.
Her father, Alessandro Montessori, 33 years old at the time, was an official of the Ministry of Finance working in the local state-run tobacco factory. The Montessori family moved to Florence in 1873 and then to Rome in 1875 because of her father’s work. Montessori entered a public elementary school at the age of 6 in 1876. Her early school record was “not particularly noteworthy”, although she was awarded certificates for good behavior in the 1st grade and for “lavori donneschi”, or “women’s work”, the next year. In 1883 or 1884, at the age of 13, Montessori entered a secondary, technical school, Regia Scuola Tecnica Michelangelo Buonarroti, where she studied Italian, arithmetic, algebra, geometry, accounting, history, geography, and sciences. She graduated in 1886 with good grades and examination results.
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She initially intended to pursue the study of engineering upon graduation, an unusual aspiration for a woman in her time and place. Montessori moved forward with her intention to study medicine. She appealed to Guido Baccelli, the professor of clinical medicine at the University of Rome, but was strongly discouraged. She was met with hostility and harassment from some medical students and professors because of her gender. Because her attendance of classes with men in the presence of a naked body was deemed inappropriate, she was required to perform her dissections of cadavers alone, after hours. She resorted to smoking tobacco to mask the offensive odor of formaldehyde.
From 1896 to 1901, Montessori worked with and researched so-called “phrenasthenic” children—in modern terms, children experiencing some form of mental retardation, illness, or disability. She also began to travel, study, speak, and publish nationally and internationally, coming to prominence as an advocate for women’s rights and education for mentally disabled children. Mario Montessori was born out of her love affair with Giuseppe Montesano, a fellow doctor who was co-director with her of the Orthophrenic School of Rome. Montessori decided to continue her work and studies.
After graduating from the University of Rome in 1896, Montessori continued with her research at the University’s psychiatric clinic, and in 1897 she was accepted as a voluntary assistant there. As part of her work, she visited asylums in Rome where she observed children with mental disabilities, observations which were fundamental to her future educational work. In 1897 Montessori spoke on societal responsibility for juvenile delinquency at the National Congress of Medicine in Turin. In 1898, she wrote several articles and spoke again at the First Pedagogical Conference of Turin, urging the creation of special classes and institutions for mentally disabled children, as well as teacher training for their instructors.
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In 1900 the National League opened the Scuola Magistrale Ortofrenica, or Orthophrenic School, a “medico-pedagogical institute” for training teachers in educating mentally disabled children with an attached laboratory classroom. The school was an immediate success, attracting the attention of government officials from the departments of education and health, civic leaders, and prominent figures in the fields of education, psychiatry, and anthropology from the University of Rome. The children in the model classroom were drawn from ordinary schools but considered “uneducable” due to their deficiencies. In 1901, Montessori left the Orthophrenic School and her private practice, and in 1902 she enrolled in the philosophy degree course at the University of Rome.
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Philosophy at the time included much of what we now consider psychology. She studied theoretical and moral philosophy, the history of philosophy, and psychology as such, but she did not graduate. Montessori’s work developing what she would later call “scientific pedagogy” continued over the next few years. Still in 1902, Montessori presented a report at a second national pedagogical congress in Naples. She published two articles on pedagogy in 1903, and two more the following year.
In 1903 and 1904, she conducted anthropological research with Italian schoolchildren, and in 1904 she was qualified as a free lecturer in anthropology for the University of Rome. In 1906 Montessori was invited to oversee the care and education of a group of children of working parents in a new apartment building for low-income families in the San Lorenzo district in Rome. Montessori was interested in applying her work and methods to mentally normal children, and she accepted. At first, the classroom was equipped with a teacher’s table and blackboard, a stove, small chairs, armchairs, and group tables for the children, and a locked cabinet for the materials that Montessori had developed at the Orthophrenic School.
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Activities for the children included personal care such as dressing and undressing, care of the environment such as dusting and sweeping, and caring for the garden. The children were also shown the use of the materials Montessori had developed. In this first classroom, Montessori observed behaviors in these young children which formed the foundation of her educational method. She noted episodes of deep attention and concentration, multiple repetitions of activity, and a sensitivity to order in the environment.
Given free choice of activity, the children showed more interest in practical activities and Montessori’s materials than in toys provided for them, and were surprisingly unmotivated by sweets and other rewards. Based on her observations, Montessori implemented a number of practices that became hallmarks of her educational philosophy and method. She replaced the heavy furniture with child-sized tables and chairs light enough for the children to move, and placed child-sized materials on low, accessible shelves. Going over the room to see that everything is dusted and in order. Language: Conversation period: Children give an account of the events of the day before. Objective lessons interrupted by short rest periods. Simple gymnastics: Ordinary movements done gracefully, normal position of the body, walking, marching in line, salutations, movements for attention, placing of objects gracefully.
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Directed games, if possible, in the open air. During this period the older children in turn go through with the exercises of practical life, cleaning the room, dusting, putting the material in order. Collective gymnastics and songs, if possible in the open air. Exercises to develop forethought: Visiting, and caring for, the plants and animals.
She felt by working independently children could reach new levels of autonomy and become self-motivated to reach new levels of understanding. Montessori also came to believe that acknowledging all children as individuals and treating them as such would yield better learning and fulfilled potential in each particular child. The first Casa dei Bambini was a success, and a second was opened on April 7, 1907. The children in her programs continued to exhibit concentration, attention, and spontaneous self-discipline, and the classrooms began to attract the attention of prominent educators, journalists, and public figures. In 1909, Montessori held the first teacher training course in her new method in Città di Castello, Italy.
Her work was widely published internationally, and spread rapidly. By the end of 1911, Montessori education had been officially adopted in public schools in Italy and Switzerland, and was planned for the United Kingdom. Montessori’s work was widely translated and published during this period. Il Metodo della Pedagogia Scientifica was published in the United States as The Montessori Method: Scientific Pedagogy as Applied to Child Education in the Children’s Houses, where it became a best seller. A revised Italian edition was published in 1913. Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco, California, and to give a third international training course.
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Although Montessori and her educational approach were highly popular in the United States, she was not without opposition and controversy. In 1915, Montessori returned to Europe and took up residence in Barcelona, Spain. Over the next 20 years Montessori traveled and lectured widely in Europe and gave numerous teacher training courses. Montessori education experienced significant growth in Spain, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Italy. On her return from the United States, Montessori continued her work in Barcelona, where a small program sponsored by the Catalan government begun in 1915 had developed into the Escola Montessori, serving children from three to ten years old, and the Laboratori i Seminari de Pedagogia, a research, training, and teaching institute. In 1917, Montessori lectured in Amsterdam, and the Netherlands Montessori Society was founded. She returned in 1920 to give a series of lectures at the University of Amsterdam.
Montessori education was met with enthusiasm and controversy in England between 1912 and 1914. In 1919, Montessori came to England for the first time and gave an international training course which was received with high interest. In 1922, Montessori was invited to Italy on behalf of the government to give a course of lectures and later to inspect Italian Montessori schools. Later that year Benito Mussolini’s Fascist government came to power in Italy. Montessori lectured in Vienna in 1923, and her lectures were published as Il Bambino in Famiglia, published in English in 1936 as The Child in the Family. Between 1913 and 1936 Montessori schools and societies were also established in France, Germany, Switzerland, Belgium, Russia, Serbia, Canada, India, China, Japan, Indonesia, Australia, and New Zealand. In 1929, the first International Montessori Congress was held in Elsinore, Denmark, in conjunction with the Fifth Conference of the New Education Fellowship.
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In 1932, Montessori spoke at the International Peace Club in Geneva, Switzerland, on the theme of Peace and Education. In 1936 Montessori and her family left Barcelona for England, and soon moved to Laren, near Amsterdam. Montessori and her son Mario continued to develop new materials here, including the knobless cylinders, the grammar symbols, and botany nomenclature cards. An interest in Montessori had existed in India since 1913, when an Indian student attended the first international course in Rome, and students throughout the 1920s and 1930s had come back to India to start schools and promote Montessori education.
Montessori gave a training course at the Theosophical Society in Madras in 1939, and had intended to give a tour of lectures at various universities, and then return to Europe. During her years in India, Montessori and her son Mario continued to develop her educational method. The term “cosmic education” was introduced to describe an approach for children aged from six to twelve years that emphasized the interdependence of all the elements of the natural world. Children worked directly with plants and animals in their natural environments, and the Montessoris developed lessons, illustrations, charts, and models for use with elementary aged children. While in India, Montessori observed children and adolescents of all ages, and turned to the study of infancy. In 1944 she gave a series of thirty lectures on the first three years of life, and a government-recognized training course in Sri Lanka. These lectures were collected in 1949 in the book What You Should Know About Your Child.
In 1944 the Montessoris were granted some freedom of movement and traveled to Sri Lanka. In 1945 Montessori attended the first All India Montessori Conference in Jaipur, and in 1946, with the war over, she and her family returned to Europe. In 1946, at the age of 76, Montessori returned to Amsterdam, but she spent the next six years travelling in Europe and India. She gave a training course in London in 1946, and in 1947 opened a training institute there, the Montessori Centre. After a few years this centre became independent of Montessori and continued as the St. In 1949 Montessori returned to Europe and attended the 8th International Montessori Congress in Sanremo, Italy, where a model classroom was demonstrated.
Montessori considered her work in the Orthophrenic School and her subsequent psychological studies and research work in elementary schools as “scientific pedagogy”, a concept current in the study of education at the time. She called for not just observation and measurement of students, but for the development of new methods which would transform them. Scientific education, therefore, was that which, while based on science, modified and improved the individual. Working with non-disabled children in the Casa dei Bambini in 1907, Montessori began to develop her own pedagogy. The essential elements of her educational theory emerged from this work, described in The Montessori Method in 1912 and in The Discovery of the Child in 1948. Her method was founded on the observation of children at liberty to act freely in an environment prepared to meet their needs. Accordingly, the schoolroom was equipped with child-sized furnishings, “practical life” activities such as sweeping and washing tables, and teaching material that Montessori had developed herself.
Children were given freedom to choose and carry out their own activities, at their own paces and following their own inclinations. In these conditions, Montessori made a number of observations which became the foundation of her work. Montessori continued to develop her pedagogy and her model of human development as she expanded her work and extended it to older children. She saw human behavior as guided by universal, innate characteristics in human psychology which her son and collaborator Mario Montessori identified as “human tendencies” in 1957. One of Montessori’s many accomplishments was the Montessori method.
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This is a method of education for young children that stresses the development of a child’s own initiative and natural abilities, especially through practical play. This method allowed children to develop at their own pace and provided educators with a new understanding of child development. Montessori published a number of books, articles, and pamphlets during her lifetime, often in Italian, but sometimes first in English. Italian by her and translated under her supervision.
Montessori’s major works are given here in order of their first publication, with significant revisions and translations. English edition: The Advanced Montessori Method, Vol. Archived from the original on December 14, 2007. Montessori is often described as the first woman doctor in Italy, but in fact Ernestina Paper earned a medical degree in Florence in 1877 and practiced medicine beginning in 1878. Montessori today: a comprehensive approach to education from birth to adulthood.
The Essential Montessori: An introduction to the woman, the writings, the method, and the movement. Women’s Intellectual Contributions to the Study of Mind and Society. Archived from the original on 25 December 2012. New York: The New American Library. Montessori: The Science Behind the Genius. The montessori method: Scientific pedagogy as applied to child education in “the children’s houses” with additions and revisions by the author. Maria Montessori: Her Life and Work.
Maria Montessori Through the Seasons of the Method”. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Maria Montessori. This page was last edited on 16 April 2018, at 09:19. Here I will place an ever growing collection of fantastic articles and resources on why my precious children are not vaccinated.
We have an absurdly overblown fear of disease, we believe the lie that vaccine damage is extremely rare, and we stifle any mainstream discussion of both the efficiency of the well-maintained, unvaccinated immune system and the necessity of natural exposure to disease as a vector in the healthy development and maturation of that system. All vaccinations recommended and the diseases they claim to prevent and Prior Immunization Schedules, Center for Disease Control. History of Vaccine Schedule, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. Ingredient list of vaccine contents, Center for Disease Control. Aborted Fetuses in the Use of Vaccines, Living Whole. Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines, U. Department of Health and Human Services.