Tics Among Children – A Visible Sign of Stress
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For the development of languages for official or educational purposes, see language planning. This article needs additional citations for verification. Language development is a process starting early in human life. Infants start without knowing a language, yet by 10 months, babies can distinguish speech sounds and engage in babbling. Typically, children develop receptive language abilities before their verbal or expressive language develops. Receptive language is the internal processing and understanding of language. Usually, productive language is considered to begin with a stage of pre-verbal communication in which infants use gestures and vocalizations to make their intents known to others.
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According to a general principle of development, new forms then take over old functions, so that children learn words to express the same communicative functions they had already expressed by proverbial means. Language development is thought to proceed by ordinary processes of learning in which children acquire the forms, meanings, and uses of words and utterances from the linguistic input. Children often begin reproducing the words that they are repetitively exposed to. The nativist theory, proposed by Noam Chomsky, argues that language is a unique human accomplishment, and can be attributed to either “millions of years of evolution” or to “principles of neural organization that may be even more deeply grounded in physical law”.
Rather than a LAD evolved specifically for language, empiricists believe that general brain processes are sufficient enough for language acquisition. Other researchers embrace an interactionist perspective, consisting of social-interactionist theories of language development. In such approaches, children learn language in the interactive and communicative context, learning language forms for meaningful moves of communication. An older empiricist theory, the behaviorist theory proposed by B. Skinner suggested that language is learned through operant conditioning, namely, by imitation of stimuli and by reinforcement of correct responses. This perspective has not been widely accepted at any time, but by some accounts, is experiencing a resurgence.
Evolutionary biologists are skeptical of the claim that syntactic knowledge is transmitted in the human genome. However, many researchers claim that the ability to acquire such a complicated system is unique to the human species. One hotly debated issue is whether the biological contribution includes capacities specific to language acquisition, often referred to as universal grammar. For fifty years, linguist Noam Chomsky has argued for the hypothesis that children have innate, language-specific abilities that facilitate and constrain language learning.
Researchers who believe that grammar is learned rather than innate, have hypothesized that language learning results from general cognitive abilities and the interaction between learners and their human interactants. It has also recently been suggested that the relatively slow development of the prefrontal cortex in humans may be one reason that humans are able to learn language, whereas other species are not. Language development and processing begins before birth. Evidence has shown that there is language development occurring antepartum. When the infants were born, they were then tested. Throughout the first year of life, infants are unable to communicate with language.
This phenomenon is known as prelinguistic gestures, which are nonverbal ways that infants communicate that also had a plan backed with the gesture. Examples of these could be pointing at an object, tugging on the shirt of a parent to get the parent’s attention, etc. 18 months of age, language acquisition flourishes. There is a surge in word production resulting from the growth of the cortex. Infants begin to learn the words that form a sentence and within the sentence, the word endings can be interpreted. It appears that during the early years of language development females exhibit an advantage over males of the same age. When infants between the age of 16 to 22 months were observed interacting with their mothers, a female advantage was obvious.
The females in this age range showed more spontaneous speech production than the males and this finding was not due to mothers speaking more with daughters than sons. It is currently believed that in regards to brain lateralization males are left-lateralized, while females are bilateralized. Studies on patients with unilateral lesions have provided evidence that females are in fact more bilateralized with their verbal abilities. This could explain why some of the language impairments in young males seems to spontaneously improve over time. It is also suggested that the gender gap in language impairment prevalence could also be explained by the clinical over diagnosis of males. Males tend to be clinically over diagnosed with a variety of disorders.
The study by Shriber et al. These researchers reveal that male children tend to act out behaviorally when they have any sort of disorder, while female children tend to turn inward and develop emotional disorders as well. Research in writing development has been limited in psychology. In the research that has been conducted, focus has generally centred on the development of written and spoken language and their connection. Spoken and written skills could be considered linked. Researchers believe that children’s spoken language influences their written language.
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Kroll’s theory is one of the most significant on children’s writing development. He proposed that children’s writing development is split into 4 phases. Kroll explicitly states that these phases are ‘artificial’ in the sense that the boundaries between the phases are imprecise and he recognises that each child is different, thus their development is unique. The first of Kroll’s phases is the preparation for writing phase.
In this phase the child is believed to grasp the technical skills needed for writing, allowing them to create the letters needed to write the words the children say. In this initial phase children experience many opportunities to extend their spoken language skills. Kroll considers the second phase in writing development to be consolidation. Here, children begin to consolidate spoken and written language. In this phase children’s writing skills rely heavily on their spoken language skills, and their written and spoken language becoming integrated. In the third phase, differentiation, children begin to learn that written language regularly differs in structure and style from spoken language.
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The growth from consolidation to differentiation can be challenging for some children to grasp. Children can ‘struggle with the transformation from the basically overt language of speech to the essentially covert activity of writing’. Kroll considers the last phase to be the systematic integration phase. A differentiation and integration between the child’s speaking and writing can be seen in this phase.
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Kroll used the four phases to give an explanation and generalise about the development of these two aspects of language. The highest significance is placed on the second and third phase, consolidation and differentiation respectively. Perera conducted a survey and her view mirrors that of Kroll to the extent that she used Kroll’s four phases. When a child undergoes initial learning of the written language, they have not yet fully mastered the oral language. Other than Kroll’s theory, there are four principles on early patterns in writing development discussed by Marie Clay in her book What Did I Write? The four principles are recurring principle, the generative principle, the sign principle, and the inventory principle.
The recurring principle involves patterns and shapes in English writing that develop throughout writing development. More recent research has also explored writing development. Myhill concentrated on the development of written language skills in adolescents aged 13 to 15. The environment a child develops in has influences on language development. The environment provides language input for the child to process.
Speech by adults to children help provide the child with correct language usage repetitively. Although the importance of its role in developing language has been debated, many linguists think that it may aid in capturing the infant’s attention and maintaining communication. Throughout existing research, it is concluded that children exposed to extensive vocabulary and complex grammatical structures more quickly develop language and also have a more accurate syntax than children raised in environments without complex grammar exposed to them. With motherese, the mother talks to the child and responds back to the child, whether it be a babble the child made or a short sentence. Child-directed speech concentrates on small core vocabulary, here and now topics, exaggerated facial expressions and gestures, frequent questioning, para-linguistic changes, and verbal rituals.
An infant is least likely to produce vocalizations when changed, fed, or rocked. Child-directed speech also catches the child’s attention, and in situations where words for new objects are being expressed to the child, this form of speech may help the child recognize the speech cues and the new information provided. Recasting is rephrasing something the child has said, perhaps turning it into a question or restating the child’s immature utterance in the form of a fully grammatical sentence. For example, a child saying “cookie now” a parent may respond with “Would you like a cookie now? Expanding is restating, in a linguistically sophisticated form, what a child has said.
For example, a child may say “car move road” and the parent may respond “A car drives on the road. Labeling is identifying the names of objects. If a child points to an object such as a couch the mother may say “couch” in response. Labeling can also be characterized as referencing.
Some language development experts have characterized child directed speech in stages. Primarily, the parents use repetition and also variation to maintain the infant’s attention. Secondly, the parent simplifies speech to help in language learning. Third, any speech modifications maintain the responsiveness of the child.
These modifications develop into a conversation that provides context for the development. While most children throughout the world develop language at similar rates and without difficulty, cultural and socioeconomic differences have been shown to influence development. An example of cultural differences in language development can be seen when comparing the interactions of mothers in the United States with their infants with mothers in Japan. Specifically in North American culture, maternal race, education, and socioeconomic class influence parent-child interactions in the early linguistic environment. It is crucial that children are allowed to socially interact with other people who can vocalize and respond to questions.
For language acquisition to develop successfully, children must be in an environment that allows them to communicate socially in that language. Children who have learnt sound, meaning and grammatical system of language that can produce clear sentence may still not have the ability to use language effectively in various social circumstance. There are a few different theories as to why and how children develop language. The most popular—and yet heavily debated—explanation is that language is acquired through imitation. This theory has been challenged by Lester Butler, who argues that children do not use the grammar that an adult would use. Furthermore, “children’s language is highly resistant to alteration by adult intervention”, meaning that children do not use the corrections given to them by an adult. Phonology involves the rules about the structure and sequence of speech sounds.
Semantics consists of vocabulary and how concepts are expressed through words. The first, syntax, is the rules in which words are arranged into sentences. Pragmatics involves the rules for appropriate and effective communication. Each component has its own appropriate developmental periods.
Babies can recognize their mother’s voice from as early as few weeks old. It seems like they have a unique system that is designed to recognize speech sound. Furthermore, they can differentiate between certain speech sounds. This is the baby’s way of practicing his control over that apparatus. Babbling is independent from the language. That means that there is some order to the development of the physical system in young children.
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As the children’s ability to produce sound develops, their ability to perceive the phonetic contrast of their language develops. The better they get in mastering the sound, the more sensitive they become to the changes in those sounds in their language once they get exposed to it. They learn to isolate individual phenomes while speaking which also serves as the basis of reading. So children may say helikat instead of helicopter or fowe instead of telephone. That way, they don’t pronounce the more emphasized sound in the word. For example, children might say ‘tap’ instead of “stop” and completely drop the ‘s’ sound in that word. That is a common process in children’s speech development.
It means that the young toddler may use sounds that are easier to produce instead of the proper sound in a word. We may see that the child replace the ‘r’ sound with ‘l’ or ‘w’, the ‘n’ with ‘d’ and so on. In order for the young speaker to produce sounds easier, he or she may replace the sound in a specific word to a different one, which is somewhat similar. From shortly after birth to around one year, the baby starts to make speech sounds. At around two months, the baby engages in cooing, which mostly consists of vowel sounds. At around four months, cooing turns into babbling, which is the repetitive consonant-vowel combinations.
Babies understand more than they are able to say. 12 month, range the child engages in canonical babbling, i. This jargon babbling with intonational contours the language being learned. 24 months, babies can recognize the correct pronunciation of familiar words. Babies also use phonological strategies to simplify word pronunciation.
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Within this first year, two word utterances and two syllable words emerge. 30 months awareness of rhyme emerges as well as rising intonation. 60 months, phonological awareness continues to improve as well as pronunciation. At this age, children have a considerable experience with language and are able to form simple sentences that are 3 words in length. They use basic prepositions, pronouns, and plurals.
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10 years, children can master syllable stress patterns, which helps distinguish slight differences between similar words. The average child masters about fifty words by the age of eighteen months. Afterwards they acquire 12 to 16 words a day. By the age of six, they master about 13 to 14 thousand words. The most frequent words include adjective-like expressions for displeasure and rejection such as ‘no’. They also include social interaction words, such as “please” and “bye”.
A new word refers to a whole object. A new word refers to a type of thing, not just to a particular thing. For example, when the child hears the word ‘sheep’ he infers that it is used for the animal type and not only for that particular sheep that he saw. In other words, when the child hears the word “sheep” he overgeneralizes it to other animals that look like sheep by the external appearance, such as white, wooly and four-legged animal. Contextual clues are a major factor in the child’s vocabulary development.
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The child uses contextual clues to draw inferences about the category and meaning of new words. By doing so, the child distinguishes between names and ordinary nouns. However, when the child hears a noun without the determiner, he perceives it as a name, for instance “this is Mary”. Children usually make correct meaning associations with the words that the adults say. However, sometimes they make semantic errors.
Overextension: When a child says or hears a word, they might associate what they see or hear as more generalized concept than the real meaning of the word. For example, if they say “cat”, they might overextend it to other animals with same features. Underextension: It involves the use of lexical items in an overly restrictive fashion. In other words, the child focuses on core members of a certain category. For example: ‘cat’ may only refer to the family cat and no other cat, or ‘dog’ may refer to certain kinds of dogs that the child is exposed to. Verb meaning: when a pre-school child hears the verb ‘fill’, he understands it as the action ‘pour’ rather than the result, which is ‘make full’. Dimensional terms: the first dimensional adjectives acquired are big and small because they belong to the size category.