Using Children’s Literature to Motivate Math Lessons
The Common Core asks students to read stories and literature, as well as more complex texts that provide facts and background knowledge in areas such using Children’s Literature to Motivate Math Lessons science and social studies. Students will be challenged and asked questions that push them to refer back to what they’ve read. This stresses critical-thinking, problem-solving, and analytical skills that are required for success in college, career, and life.
Because students must learn to read, write, speak, listen, and use language effectively in a variety of content areas, the standards promote the literacy skills and concepts required for college and career readiness in multiple disciplines. States determine how to incorporate these standards into their existing standards for those subjects or adopt them as content area literacy standards. They include critical-thinking skills and the ability to closely and attentively read texts in a way that will help them understand and enjoy complex works of literature. Students will learn to use cogent reasoning and evidence collection skills that are essential for success in college, career, and life.
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Please click here for the ADA Compliant version of the English Language Arts Standards. Please forward this error screen to 209. Eight references in this brief have been reviewed by the WWC, thus far. Peer tutoring Peer tutoring is an instructional strategy that consists of student partnerships, linking high achieving students with lower achieving students or those with comparable achievement, for structured reading and math study sessions. There has been extensive research on peer tutoring.
The chart below provides a brief comparison of approaches. Research exists in these content areas. Approach may be used in other areas. The following sections discuss each of these three peer tutoring approaches.
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By involving students with disabilities in their education and giving them self-management tools students can generalize motivation into other areas. Evidence of effectiveness There has been considerable research on the outcomes of Cross-Age Tutoring. Math effects tended to be stronger than in reading. Awarded “best practice” status by the U. Department of Education Program Effectiveness Panel for inclusion in the National Diffusion Network.
Unlike Cross-Age Tutoring, PALS is a structured peer tutoring program. PALS was developed in 1989 by Dr. PALS offers specific programs in math and reading. Reading PALS is available for preschool through 6th grade and for 9th grade through 12th grade, with variations available for some grade levels.
Math PALS is available for kindergarten through 6th grade. In both content areas, the PAL strategies are designed to complement and not replace existing classroom reading and math curricula and instructional methods. Reading PALS Reading PALS pairs students in a systematic way. First, students are ranked according to reading competence. Next, each student in the class is paired with another student.
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The pairs consist of one higher- and one lower-achieving student. The higher-achieving student always reads first, as a model for the other student. Students are monitored as they engage in the lessons. There are three parts to PALS sessions in which the partners take turns reading and describing what they read to each other.
Partner Reading – the higher-achieving student reads aloud while their partner follows along correcting mistakes. After five minutes the students switch roles and reread the same selection. Paragraph Shrinking – students must state the main idea in ten words or less which encourages them to display and monitor comprehension while taking turns reading one paragraph at a time. They earn points when the goals of the exercise are met.
Prediction Relay – a partner predicts what information will be in the next half page of text, and then reads out loud to find the information. Pairs earn points for every correct prediction and for appropriate summaries. Retrieved January 22, 2004, from the Vanderbilt Kennedy Center for Research on Human Development. Math PALS Math PALS can be applied to many diverse learners at varying skill levels. These interactions increase the level of participation on topical areas through verbal rehearsal, until the process becomes routine, and verbal rehearsal is no longer needed. During PALS sessions, the program developers encourage teachers to assist students in making connections between the material presented and math concepts.
They indicate that with structure and guidance from teachers, students can move past basic concepts and questions into conceptual knowledge. Methods that have enhanced conceptual math knowledge include: providing real-life examples, discussing meaning and answers to problems, and the use of manipulative or concrete representations. There are two parts to PALS sessions in which the students work through math problems and activities. The “coach” questions the “player” in order to guide the activity.
The “coach” has been trained in how to correct the “player. This activity should last 15-20 minutes. Once they have completed the worksheet, they exchange papers and score them. This activity should last 5-10 minutes. Students earn points based on their cooperation, explanations, and accuracy.
Researchers and teachers are continually modifying and adapting Reading and Math PALS to suit the variety of situations in which learning takes place. PALS is easily adapted to different settings, and that, overall, peer tutoring is an effective approach to improved student outcomes. PALS utilizes the inherent ability differences of students in various skill levels within the classroom setting. Reading and Math PALS give teachers tangible strategies to implement in their classrooms, which assist them in meeting the needs of their diverse learners. Students are taught to develop their skills through specific techniques. They are encouraged to review and ask questions during tutoring sessions based on the teacher’s instruction. Students generate questions and draw conclusions through reciprocal peer interaction.
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In elementary grades, children’s reading competence can improve when they work collaboratively on structured learning activities. Math PALS shows positive results in low- and average-achieving students, and students with learning disabilities. RPT is a collaborative learning strategy in which students alternate between the role of tutor and tutee. Unlike the previous peer tutoring strategies discussed, RPT may involve more than a one-to-one relationship.
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Peer tutors present tutees with a problem to solve using a flashcard with the answer on the back. The student computes the problem in writing on a worksheet. Once the tutoring is completed a 16-problem quiz covering what was practiced is given. Individual goals are combined with group goals and are rewarded if they met or surpassed the predetermined goals. The roles are equitable, which can promote an environment of acceptance.
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Students can self-manage their behavior when they are actively participating in learning. Students engaged in these structured activities reported higher levels of competence and positive conduct than students in unstructured activities. Conclusion Peer tutoring is an effective educational strategy for classrooms of diverse learners because it promotes academic gains as well as social enhancement. Programs can be successfully implemented at the classroom-level or on a wider scale at the school — or district-level. Peer tutoring is particularly advantageous in inclusive classrooms because it allows teachers to address a wide range of learning needs and engages all students simultaneously.
Regardless of ability level, students can engage in and learn from the lesson. Furthermore, the collaborative learning aspect of the strategy encourages positive social interaction between students in a classroom. Peer-mediated instruction and interventions and students with mild disabilities. The peer tutoring handbook: Promoting cooperative learning.
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PALS Professional Development Note: The developers of PALS recommend a one-day on-site training workshop for implementation. All workshop participants need a PALS teacher manual. References Click the “References” link above to hide these references. Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice. Classwide peer tutoring: Information for families, 1-3.
Educational outcomes of tutoring: A meta-analysis of findings. Journal of Special Education, 19, 483-492. Effects of parent involvement in isolation or in combination with peer tutoring on student self-concept and mathematics achievement. Effects of reciprocal peer tutoring on mathematics and school adjustment: A component analysis.