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Warning: This list is not for the faint of heart. All water has bacteria and protozoans to some extent, most of them completely harmless. When cities pump water out to their residents, they put the water through a series of filtration and disinfection steps first. This is obviously beneficial because when you pull water from lakes and rivers it’s most likely going to be filled with bacteria. Filter it, and you can get most of that bacteria out. Cryptosporisium is what’s known as a protozoan—a single-celled organism—and is most famous for giving people bouts of crippling diarrhea, a condition affectionately referred to as cryptosporidiosis.
The protozoa works like a parasite, latching onto the intestines and laying eggs in a person’s fecal matter—and that’s how it spreads: when drinking water becomes contaminated with infected fecal matter, crypto moves on to new hosts. This pleasant looking slinky is Anabaena circinalis, a cyanobacteria that lives in freshwater reservoirs around the world, notably Australia, Europe, Asia, New Zealand, and North America. Cyanobacteria like this are believed to be some of the first multicellular organisms on earth, and as such have evolved to do some very curious things. In the case of Anabaena spp.
In Australia, freshwater Anabaena bacteria have been found producing saxitoxins, a type of neurotoxin that causes respiratory arrest, followed by death. Fortunately, cyanobacteria are one of the easier microorganisms to filter out of drinking water. Rotifers are a relatively common microorganism that can be found pretty much everywhere in the world. Some of them swim, others crawl around with an inchworm motion, but none of them are known to be harmful to humans. What’s not good is that the presence of rotifers in a municipal water supply usually means that there is a problem with the filtration system—organisms that large should not be able to make it through. The link in the previous entry pointed to a Connecticut public health bulletin meant to advise residents who might find tiny bugs swimming around in their tap water.
It addresses two types of near-microscopic invertebrates: rotifers, and copepods. Of the two, copepods are larger, and possibly even more common. In the Connecticut incident, which happened in 2009, residents began finding thousands of them in small samples of water. We were drinking them, washing out clothes in them, and it was just completely nasty. But if anything, copepods are beneficial because they often feed on toxins.
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Again though, the fact that they can make it through the filtration system means plenty of smaller bacteria can too. Escherichia coli, a bacteria that lives in, on, and around fecal matter. It’s been publicized more times than you can shake a stick at, until by now it’s practically a legend of the bacteria world. Here’s the data sheet on drinking water contaminants from the Environmental Protection Agency, or EPA, of the United States. 5 percent of the water samples collected in a given month. So if the municipality tests their water 100 times in a month, 5 of those samples can be infected with E.
In the world at large, the more colorful something is, the more fun you can probably have with it. And based on that logic, these mycotoxic mold spores are just a big barrel of laughs. Widely considered the most common fungus in the world, it’s not surprising that this mold shows up in tap water as well. Fungi reproduce with spores which, much like flower pollen, float through the air until they find a suitable place to land and grow. In 2006, a study looked at the concentrations of mold spores in tap water, and found that Rhizopus stolonifer appeared 2. This organism doesn’t look as terrifying as some of the other creatures on this list—really it just looks like a few mold splotches. It’s actually an amoeba, though, and it eats brains.
To be scientific about it, the amoeba attacks a person’s nervous system by entering through their nasal cavities, killing 98 percent of its victims. When the deaths were investigated, the brain eating amoeba was found on the bathtub, shower heads, and sink faucets—the house was literally covered in it. Despite this case, most infections aren’t caused by tap water infected with N. With a name like Legionella, this bacteria already sounds dangerous.
And since it was named after an American Legion convention in 1976 where it was responsible for 34 deaths and a total of 221 infections, that might be a fair assumption. Legionnaires’ disease, and it sends 18,000 people to the hospital every year. But even if you’re not on a government hit list, you would do well to stay away from water in general. Here’s another type of mold, and one that looks slightly more terrifying than the psychedelic funhouse in number five. Like black bread mold, Chaetomium species are fairly common in everyday life, usually floating through the air in moist locations, which can encompass everything from a swamp to your bathroom ceilings.
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They can also present a hazard to people who are allergic to the spores, and even that typically only happens with chronic exposure. One of the first things we learn as children is that you always cook chicken, and if you handle it raw you better scrub those hands nice and good. The reason, of course, is salmonella, which has such a long history of infection it’s not even possible to link to them all here. In 2008, Colorado tap water was responsible for 79 cases of salmonella poisoning, which caused fevers and vomiting. People with weak immune systems, like the elderly, are especially susceptible to salmonella. In wine there is wisdom, in beer there is freedom, in water there is bacteria.
Follow us on Facebook or subscribe to our daily or weekly newsletter so you don’t miss out on our latest lists. When he’s not writing he’s usually hiking or rock climbing, or just enjoying the fresh North Carolina air. Listverse is a Trademark of Listverse Ltd. We know huge dinosaurs once roamed the Earth – but their little feet and huge bulky tails don’t look ideal for getting around.
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The creatures would have spent most of their time splashing through lakes between 15ft and 30ft deep, and their huge tails helped them swim. Jurassic Park’ idea of them roaming grassy plains. Brian Ford, a cell biologist, believes this explains why archaeologists have unearthed dinosaur footprints for the dinosaurs, but there is no sign of tailmarks as if they wasted large amounts of energy holding their tails in the air. Would you want to be saved by THIS? In a radical theory, he believes the tails were a swimming aid as large dinosaurs spent most of their time paddling in lakes around 15ft to 30ft deep and their footprints made in the muddy depths, then dried up. 100 tonnes only had two little legs – whereas today’s largest animals, the elephant and rhinoceros, have four. I am now certain that the dinosaurs were primarily aquatic creatures.
They have a large and bulky body with a huge and muscular tail which would be better used to propel and steer a swimming dinosaur. Dinosaurs are usually depicted standing in a vast arid plain, but I believe the scene was actually a shallow lake in which the water supports the weight of the animals. They evolved when the world was largely covered in shallow lakes, and the mud at the bottom of them eventually formed layers of Liassic limestone. When you think of it like that, it all makes sense.
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The bulky muscular tail would have been impracticable as depicted in the conventional images and the abundant fossil footprints do not show tail dragging. They used the water to support their mass, buoy up their tails, regulate their temperature and provide a habitat for their food. All the research, all the Hollywood films, the artwork, everything need to be revised. Some large dinosaurs such as the spinosaurus were known to eat fish, while most other large dinosaurs were leaf-eaters apart from the carnivore T-Rex.
During the dinosaur era 55 million years ago, the Earth was much hotter and he believes the pools would have been a balmy 37C. However Dr Paul Barrett, a palaeontologist at the Natural History Museum in London said the theory does not stack up. This idea was very popular from around the 1920s, but since the 1960s we have demonstrated with the help of engineering work on load-bearing structures, that dinosaurs had more than enough muscle strength in their legs to get around easily on land. You run into more problems when you put them into water as they would have had trouble breathing, and would have been slow to move around in squelchy mud.
They may well have lived near water or gone into it sometimes to cool off, but I just don’t buy the theory that they lived in it. The comments below have not been moderated. We are no longer accepting comments on this article. This February 2018 image made available by NASA on Thursday, April 19, 2018 shows the Lagoon Nebula, about 4,000 light-years away from the Earth, with the star Herschel 36 at center.
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An oily secuder and a flirty heiress: This is REAL Victorian melodrama! I want to make sure I respond to it in the appropriate way! Will Meghan’s ‘something borrowed’ be from Diana? Please forward this error screen to 192. The exact structure of the system varies somewhat between the five classes of echinoderm. Other terms sometimes used to the water vascular system are “ambulacral system” and “aquiferous system”.
In sea stars, water enters the system through a sieve-like structure on the upper surface of the animal, called the madreporite. This overlies a small sac, or ampulla, connected to a duct termed the stone canal, which is, as its name implies, commonly lined with calcareous material. Each side of the radial canals gives rise to a row of bulb-like ampullae, which are connected via lateral canals. In sea stars these are always staggered, so that an ampulla on the left follows one on the right, and so on down the length of the radial canal. The ampullae are connected to suckerlike podia. The entire structure is called a tube foot. Contraction of the ampullae causes the podia to stretch as water is brought into them.
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This whole process allows for movement, and is quite powerful but extremely slow. The central ring canal, in addition to connecting the radial canals to each other and to the stone canal, also has a number of other specialised structures on the inner surface. In between each radial canal, in many sea star species, there lies a muscular sac called a polian vesicle. Although the contents of the water vascular system are essentially sea water, apart from coelomocytes, the fluid also contains some protein and high levels of potassium salts. Ophiuroids, the group including brittle stars and basket stars, have a somewhat different water vascular system from sea stars, despite their superficially similar appearance. The madreporite is located on the underside of the animal, usually in one of the jaw plates. Ophiuroids have no ambulacral groove, and the radial canals instead run through the solid bone-like ossicles of the arms.
Unlike sea stars, the tube feet are paired instead of staggered, and there are no ampullae. Instead, a simple valve at the upper end of the foot helps to control water pressure in the tube feet, along with contraction of the associated canals. The madreporite of sea urchins is located within one of the plates surrounding the anus on the upper surface of the animal. The stone canal descends from the madreporite to the ring canal, which lies around the oesophagus, and includes a number of polian vesicles. The ampullae branching off from either side of the radial canals give rise to ten rows of tube feet, which penetrate through holes in the test to the outside. The tube feet of sea urchins are often highly modified for different purposes.
Uniquely among echinoderms, crinoids have no madreporite. Instead, the oral surface is dotted within numerous minute ciliated funnels that run into the main body cavity. The ring canal has several small stone canals, located between the arms of the animal, but these open into the body cavity, and thus are only indirectly connected to the outside. The five radial canals run into the arms and branch several times to supply all of the individual branches and pinnules lining the arms. As in other echinoderms, the radial canals give rise to lateral canals, but there are no ampullae, and clusters of three tube feet branch from the ends of each canal, except around the mouth, where they are found singly. The water vascular system of sea cucumbers has no connection to the outside, and is thus filled with the internal coelomic fluid, rather than sea water.
The madreporite is present, but lies within the body cavity, just below the pharynx. The stone canal is relatively short. The ring canal normally has one to four polian vesicles, but in the order Apodida, there may be as many as fifty. The radial canals run through notches in the calcareous plates surrounding the mouth and then run along the ambulacral areas along the length of the body. Lateral canals run to both the tube feet and the large oral tentacles, all of which possess ampullae. Multicellular animals: the phylogenetic system of the metazoa.
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Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur, Mainz, vol. In: Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates, Harrison, F. This page was last edited on 7 March 2018, at 08:06. This article needs additional citations for verification. This article possibly contains original research. This is a list of legendary creatures from mythology, folklore and fairy tales, sorted by their classification or affiliation.
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A nymph who was turned into a bear by Hera. Resembles a wolf, a hyena, or both. Water nymphs, no souls until they marry a human man and bear him a child. See also: Category:Mythological rabbits and hares. Azeban is a lower-level trickster spirit in Abenaki mythology. Lavellan A Lavellan, làbh-allan, la-mhalan or la-bhallan etc. It was generally considered to be a kind of rodent, and indeed the name “làbh-allan” is also used for a water shrew or water vole in Scottish Gaelic.
It was however, reportedly larger than a rat, very noxious, and lived in deep pools in rivers. This listing includes creatures that are man-made, mechanical or of alchemical origins. This page was last edited on 22 April 2018, at 21:47. To fully experience the Sporepedia, you must be logged in.
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