Child Care & Early Education Glossary
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Test written by four-year-old child in 1972, former Soviet Union. ECCE has a global scope, and caring for and educating young children has always been an integral part of human societies. Children remember and repeat actions they observe. While the first two years of a child’s life are spent in the creation of a child’s first “sense of self”, most children are able to differentiate between themselves and others by their second year.
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This differentiation is crucial to the child’s ability to determine how they should function in relation to other people. 2 years of age, can be influential to future education. With proper guidance and exploration children begin to become more comfortable with their environment, if they have that steady relationship to guide them. Parents who are consistent with response times, and emotions will properly make this attachment early on. A child exploring comfortably due to having a secure attachment with caregiver.
Children’s curiosity and imagination naturally evoke learning when unfettered. Learning through play will allow a child to develop cognitively. Tassoni suggests that “some play opportunities will develop specific individual areas of development, but many will develop several areas. Thus, It is important that practitioners promote children’s development through play by using various types of play on a daily basis. Davy states that the British Children’s Act of 1989 links to play-work as the act works with play workers and sets the standards for the setting such as security, quality and staff ratios.
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Learning through play has been seen regularly in practice as the most versatile way a child can learn. Piaget provides an explanation for why learning through play is such a crucial aspect of learning as a child. However, due to the advancement of technology, the art of play has started to dissolve and has transformed into “playing” through technology. Greenfield, quoted by the author, Stuart Wolpert, in the article, “Is Technology Producing a Decline in Critical Thinking and Analysis? No media is good for everything. Many oppose the theory of learning through play because they think children are not gaining new knowledge.
In reality, play is the first way children learn to make sense of the world at a young age. As children watch adults interact around them, they pick up on their slight nuances, from facial expressions to their tone of voice. They are exploring different roles, learning how things work, and learning to communicate and work with others. The Developmental Interaction Approach is based on the theories of Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, John Dewey and Lucy Sprague Mitchell. The approach focuses on learning through discovery. Social: the way in which a child interacts with others Children develop an understanding of their responsibilities and rights as members of families and communities, as well as an ability to relate to and work with others. Emotional: the way in which a child creates emotional connections and develops self-confidence.
Emotional connections develop when children relate to other people and share feelings. Language: the way in which a child communicates, including how they present their feelings and emotions, both to other people and to themselves. At 3 months, children employ different cries for different needs. At 6 months they can recognize and imitate the basic sounds of spoken language. In the first 3 years, children need to be exposed to communication with others in order to pick up language. Normal” language development is measured by the rate of vocabulary acquisition. Cognitive skills: the way in which a child organizes information.
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Cognitive skills include problem solving, creativity, imagination and memory. They embody the way in which children make sense of the world. Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky proposed a “socio-cultural learning theory” that emphasized the impact of social and cultural experiences on individual thinking and the development of mental processes. Vygotsky’s theory emerged in the 1930s and is still discussed today as a means of improving and reforming educational practices. Vygotsky argued that since cognition occurs within a social context, our social experiences shape our ways of thinking about and interpreting the world. Although Vygotsky predated social constructivists, he is commonly classified as one.
Vygotsky proposed that children learn through their interactions with more knowledgeable peers and adults. According to Vygotsky, “what is in the zone of proximal development today will be the actual developmental level tomorrow”. ZPD encourages early childhood educators to adopt “scaffolding”, in which a teacher adjusts support to fit a child’s learning needs. Scaffolding requires specially trained teachers, a differentiated curriculum, and additional learning time.
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Vygotsky advocated that teachers facilitate rather than direct student learning. Vygotsky’s socio-cultural learning theory has also proven especially important for the education of the mentally disabled. Jean Piaget’s constructivist theory gained influence in the 1970s and ’80s. Although Piaget himself was primarily interested in a descriptive psychology of cognitive development, he also laid the groundwork for a constructivist theory of learning. According to Piaget’s theory, when young children encounter new information, they attempt to accommodate and assimilate it into their existing understanding of the world. Accommodation involves adapting mental schemas and representations in order to make them consistent with reality.
Assimilation involves fitting new information into their pre-existing schemas. Thus, crucial components of early childhood education include exploration, manipulating objects, and experiencing new environments. Subsequent reflection on these experiences is equally important. Piaget’s concept of reflective abstraction was particularly influential in mathematical education. Through reflective abstraction, children construct more advanced cognitive structures out of the simpler ones they already possess. This allows children to develop mathematical constructs that cannot be learned through equilibration — making sense of experiences through assimilation and accommodation — alone.
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According to Piagetian theory, language and symbolic representation is preceded by the development of corresponding mental representations. Research shows that the level of reflective abstraction achieved by young children was found to limit the degree to which they could represent physical quantities with written numerals. Piaget held that children can invent their own procedures for the four arithmetical operations, without being taught any conventional rules. Piaget’s theory implies that computers can be a great educational tool for young children when used to support the design and construction of their projects. David Kolb’s experiential learning theory, which was influenced by John Dewey, Kurt Lewin and Jean Piaget, argues that children need to experience things in order to learn: “The process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. Knowledge results from the combinations of grasping and transforming experience. Kolb breaks down this learning cycle into four stages: concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualisation, and active experimentation.
Children observe new situations, think about the situation, make meaning of the situation, then test that meaning in the world around them. In other words, the child needs to be taught to rationalize everything and to be open to interpretations and critical thinking. By providing education in a child’s most formative years, ECE also has the capacity to pre-emptively begin closing the educational achievement gap between low and high-income students before formal schooling begins. Especially since the first wave of results from the Perry Preschool Project were published, there has been widespread consensus that the quality of early childhood education programs correlate with gains in low-income children’s IQs and test scores, decreased grade retention, and lower special education rates. Several studies have reported that children enrolled in ECE increase their IQ scores by 4-11 points by age five, while a Milwaukee study reported a 25-point gain. Beyond benefitting societal good, ECE also significantly impacts the socioeconomic outcomes of individuals. In Ypsilanti, Michigan, 3 and 4 year-olds from low-income families were randomly assigned to participate in the Perry Preschool.
By age 18, they were five times less likely to have become chronic law-breakers than those who were not selected to participate in the Preschool. 5500 per year more than those who were not. The authors of the Perry Preschool Project also propose that the return on investment in education declines with the student’s age. This study is noteworthy because it advocates for public spending on early childhood programs as an economic investment in a society’s future, rather than in the interest of social justice.
Anderson re-examined the data from Perry and similar projects and found ” girls garnered substantial short- and long-term benefits from the interventions. However, there were no significant long-term benefits for boys. In the past decade, there has been a national push for state and federal policy to address the early years as a key component of public education. 500 million to states with comprehensive early childhood education plans. Head Start grants are awarded directly to public or private non-profit organizations, including community-based and faith-based organizations, or for-profit agencies within a community that wish to compete for funds. The same categories of organizations are eligible to apply for Early Head Start, except that applicants need not be from the community they will be serving. Many states have created new early childhood education agencies.
Massachusetts was the first state to create a consolidated department focused on early childhood learning and care. Just in the past fiscal year, state funding for public In Minnesota, the state government created an Early Learning scholarship program, where families with young children meeting free and reduced price lunch requirements for kindergarten can receive scholarships to attend ECE programs. Currently, one of America’s larger challenges regarding ECE is an dearth in workforce, partly due to low compensation for rigorous work. Another challenge is to ensure the quality of ECE programs. The American legal system has also played a hand in public ECE. State adequacy cases can also create a powerful legal impetus for states to provide universal access to ECE, drawing upon the rich research illustrating that by the time they enter school, students from low-income backgrounds are already far behind other students.
The New Jersey case Abbott County School District v. Burke and South Carolina case Abbeville County School District v. In the 1998 case of Abbott v. New Jersey Supreme Court required New Jersey’s poorest school districts to implement high-quality ECE programs and full day kindergarten for all three and four-year-olds. In the 2005 case of Abbeville v. State, the South Carolina Supreme Court decided that ECE programs were necessary to break the “debilitating and destructive cycle of poverty for low-income students and poor academic achievement.
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As research shows, children’s care and educational needs are intertwined. Poor care, health, nutrition, and physical and emotional security can affect educational potentials in the form of mental retardation, impaired cognitive and behavioural capacities, motor development delay, depression, difficulties with concentration and attention. Decades of research provide unequivocal evidence that public investment in early childhood care and education can produce economic returns equal to roughly 10 times its costs. The first World Conference on Early Childhood Care and Education took place in Moscow from 27 to 29 September 2010, jointly organized by UNESCO and the city of Moscow. According to UNESCO a preschool curriculum is one that delivers educational content through daily activities, and furthers a child’s physical, cognitive and social development. Generally, preschool curricula are only recognized by governments if they are based on academic research and reviewed by peers. Preschool for Child Rights have pioneered into preschool curricular areas and is contributing into child rights through their preschool curriculum.
It follows therefore that the quality of a programme is greatly influenced by the quality of its curriculum. Children’s learning potential and outcomes are negatively affected by exposure to violence, abuse and child labour. Thus, protecting young children from violence and exploitation is part of broad educational concerns. In both developed and developing countries, children of the poor and the disadvantaged remain the least served. This exclusion persists against the evidence that the added value of early childhood care and education services are higher for them than for their more affluent counterparts, even when such services are of modest quality. Definition of Free Cultural Works logo notext. The Scope of Early Childhood Education”.
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UNESCO Early Childhood and Family Policy Series No. Footnote Anning, A and Cullen, J. Earlychildhood NEWS – Article Reading Center”. Hidden Mathematics in the Preschool Classroom. Playwork: Play and Care for Children 5-15.
Benefits Of Play – Learning Activities In Early Childhood – Parenting For Brain”. Glossary of Early Childhood Terms – National Association for the Education of Young Children – NAEYC TYC – Teaching Young Children Magazine”. Archived from the original on 16 December 2014. Is Technology Producing a Decline in Critical Thinking and Analysis?
The Developmental-Interaction Approach to Education: Retrospect and Prospect”. New York: Bank Street College of Education. State of New Jersey Department of Education. Archived from the original on 18 November 2011. Introduction to early childhood education: Learning together. Child Development: Theory and Practice 0-11. Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective.
Spiritual, moral, social and cultural development – Schools”. Child Development for Early Years Students and Practitioners. Child development: theory and practice 0-11. Mind in Society: the Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Constructivism: Shape-Shifting, Substance, and Teacher Education Applications”.