Education and Child Protection Technical and Policy Resources
The Media Education and Child Protection Technical and Policy Resources contains links to other education agencies, the Beehive and useful links as well as media releases and archived media releases. Kōrero Mātauranga Have your say on the future of education. New digital technologies curriculum Equipping students with skills for Digital Technologies and Hangarau Matihiko learning.
Changes in education Keep up to date with the changes in education policy and practice. Property Funding and property requirements for school buildings. He Pitopito Korero provides a central place for Ministry wide information for school leaders. He Pānui Kōhungahunga – Early Learning Bulletin Contains important information, changes and events for the early learning community. Our Society of American Foresters recognized program prepares you for a career in Forestry and Natural Resources through a unique combination of hands-on classroom instruction and work experience.
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After completing one school year of preparatory classes, seasonal work experience is available with various forest and resource agencies, as well as private industry. The Health Care Interpreter Program is dedicated to promoting excellence and professionalism in interpretative services and to enhance the provision of health and social services to ethnic communities. The fast-growing heavy equipment industry offers excellent career opportunities for qualified entry-level technicians. The Equipment Service Technician Program at Reedley College is designed to meet industry-specific requirements. The Nursing Assistant Training program is taught at Palm Village, a well equipped Retirement Community with long term care located 1. 5 miles from Reedley College, at West Herbert Avenue. The right to education also includes a responsibility to provide basic education for individuals who have not completed primary education.
In addition to these access to education provisions, the right to education encompasses the obligation to avoid discrimination at all levels of the educational system, to set minimum standards and to improve the quality of education. The right to education is reflected in international law in Article 26 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Articles 13 and 14 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit. Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.
In Europe, Article 2 of the first Protocol of 20 March 1952 to the European Convention on Human Rights states that the right to education is recognized as a human right and is understood to establish an entitlement to education. Generally, international instruments use the term in this sense and the right to education, as protected by international human rights instruments, refers primarily to education in a narrow sense. In a wider sense education may describe “all activities by which a human group transmits to its descendants a body of knowledge and skills and a moral code which enable the group to subsist”. The European Court of Human Rights has defined education in a narrow sense as “teaching or instructions in particular to the transmission of knowledge and to intellectual development” and in a wider sense as “the whole process whereby, in any society, adults endeavour to transmit their beliefs, culture and other values to the young. The fulfilment of the right to education can be assessed using the 4 As framework, which asserts that for education to be a meaningful right it must be available, accessible, acceptable and adaptable.
The 4 As framework proposes that governments, as the prime duty-bearers, have to respect, protect and fulfil the right to education by making education available, accessible, acceptable and adaptable. There should be proper infrastructure and facilities in place with adequate books and materials for students. Buildings should meet both safety and sanitation standards, such as having clean drinking water. Efforts should be made to ensure the inclusion of marginalized groups including children of refugees, the homeless or those with disabilities in short there should be universal access to education i. Students should not be expected to conform to any specific religious or ideological views.
Methods of teaching should be objective and unbiased and material available should reflect a wide array of ideas and beliefs. Observance of religious or cultural holidays should be respected by schools in order to accommodate students, along with providing adequate care to those students with disabilities. A number of international NGOs and charities work to realise the right to education using a rights-based approach to development. In Europe, before the Enlightenment of the eighteenth and nineteenth century, education was the responsibility of parents and the church. In On Liberty John Stuart Mill wrote that an “education established and controlled by the State should only exist, if it exists at all, as one among many competing experiments, carried on for the purpose of example and stimulus to keep the others up to a certain standard of excellence. The nineteenth century also saw the development of socialist theory, which held that the primary task of the state was to ensure the economic and social well-being of the community through government intervention and regulation.
Socialist theory recognised that individuals had claims to basic welfare services against the state and education was viewed as one of these welfare entitlements. International law does not protect the right to pre-primary education and international documents generally omit references to education at this level. This shall be compulsory and free for any child regardless of their nationality, gender, place of birth, or any other discrimination. Upon ratifying the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights States must provide free primary education within two years. Education must be generally available and accessible. That is, anyone who meets the necessary education standards should be able to go to university.
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Both secondary and higher education shall be made accessible “by every appropriate means, and in particular by the progressive introduction of free education”. The rights of all children from early childhood stem from the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights’. The declaration states that human rights begin at birth and that childhood is a period demanding special care and assistance . Learning begins at birth This calls for early childhood care and initial education.
The privatization of education can have a positive impact for some social groups, in the form of increased availability of learning opportunities, greater parental choice and a wider range of curricula. Definition of Free Cultural Works logo notext. UN Treaty Collection: International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights”. Article 13, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Archived 2012-03-03 at the Wayback Machine.
Article 14, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Archived 2012-03-03 at the Wayback Machine. The Protection of the Right to Education by International Law. Primer on the right to education”. Archived from the original on 2009-03-02.
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Rethinking Education: Towards a global common good? What government policies for what private tutoring? Teaching and Learning: Achieving quality for all”. Regulating Private Tutoring for Public Good. Policy options for supplementary education in Asia”. CERC Monograph Series in Comparative and International Education and Development. Hong Kong, Comparative Education Research Center and UNESCO Bangkok Office.
Note: What is considered a human right is controversial and not all the topics listed are universally accepted as human rights. This page was last edited on 20 April 2018, at 18:29. For other uses, see Indian school. Another report from 2013 stated that there were 22. Hence, the differentiation of government schools and private schools can be misleading. In India’s higher education system, a significant number of seats are reserved under affirmative action policies for the historically disadvantaged Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes.
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University of Calcutta, established on 1857, was the first multidisciplinary and secular Western-style institution in Asia. 3 years of graduation for a bachelor’s degree. The first 10 years is further subdivided into 4 years of primary education, 6 years of High School followed by 2 years of Junior colleges. Education Policy is prepared by the Centre Government and State Governments at national and state levels respectively. 1986, has provided for environment awareness, science and technology education, and introduction of traditional elements such as Yoga into the Indian secondary school system. Logo of Haryana Board of School Education, one of the State Government Boards of Education.
School boards set the curriculum, conduct board level exams mostly at 10th and 12th level to award the school diplomas. The NCERT is the apex body located at New Delhi, Capital City of India. It makes the curriculum related matters for school education across India. State Government Boards of Education: Most of the state governments have at least one “State board of secondary school education”. However, some states like Andhra Pradesh have more than one. Also the union territories do not have a board.
Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, and Lakshadweep and Puducherry Lakshadweep share the services with a larger state. The CBSE sets curriculum from Grades 1 to 12 and conducts examinations at the 10th and 12th standards that are called board exams. National Board of education is run by Government of India’s HRD Ministry to provide education in rural areas and challenged groups in open and distance education mode. Islamic Madrasah: Their boards are controlled by local state governments, or autonomous, or affiliated with Darul Uloom Deoband or Darul Uloom Nadwtul Ulama. Autonomous schools: Such as Woodstock School, Sri Aurobindo International Centre of Education Puducherry, Patha Bhavan and Ananda Marga Gurukula. 1974 with a focus on primary education.
The pre-primary stage is the foundation of children’s knowledge, skills and behaviour. On completion of pre-primary education, the children are sent to the primary stage but pre-primary education in India is not a fundamental right. In rural India, pre-primary schools are rarely available in small villages and urban areas on the contrary. But in cities and big towns, there are many established players in the pre-primary education sector. At play schools, children are exposed to a lot of basic learning activities that help them to get independent faster and develop their self-help qualities like eating food themselves, dressing up, and maintaining cleanliness. The age limit for admission into pre-nursery is 2 to 3 years.
Nursery: Nursery level activities help children unfold their talents, thus enabling them to sharpen their mental and physical abilities. The age limit for admission in nursery is 3 to 4 years. The age limit for admission in LKG is 4 to 5 years. The age limit for admission in UKG is 5 to 6 years. LKG and UKG stages prepare and help children emotionally, mentally, socially and physically to grasp knowledge easily in the later stages of school and college life. A systematic process of preschool education is followed in India to impart knowledge in the best possible way for better understanding of the young children. The Indian government lays emphasis on primary education, also referred to as elementary education, to children aged 6 to 14 years old.
Because education laws are given by the states, duration of primary school visit alters between the Indian states. The Indian government has also banned child labour in order to ensure that the children do not enter unsafe working conditions. However, due to a shortage of resources and lack of political will, this system suffers from massive gaps including high pupil to teacher ratios, shortage of infrastructure and poor levels of teacher training. Figures released by the Indian government in 2011 show that there were 5,816,673 elementary school teachers in India. As of March 2012 there were 2,127,000 secondary school teachers in India. There have been several efforts to enhance quality made by the government. 1994 with an aim to universalise primary education in India by reforming and vitalising the existing primary education system.
Significant improvement in staffing and enrollment of girls has also been made as a part of this scheme. Secondary education covers children aged 12 to 18, a group comprising 8. 85 crore children according to the 2001 Census of India. UGC, NCERT, CBSE and ICSE directives state qualifying ages for candidates who wish to take board exams.
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Those at least 15 years old by 30 May for a given academic year are eligible to appear for Secondary board exams, and those 17 by the same date are eligible to appear for Higher Secondary certificate board exams. Secondary education in India is examination-oriented and not course-based: students register for and take classes primarily to prepare for one of the centrally-administered examinations. Students taking the grade 10 examination usually take six subjects: English, Mathematics, Social Studies, Science, one language, and one optional subject depending on the availability of teachers at different schools. Elective” or optional subjects often include Computer Applications, Economics, Physical Education, Commerce, and Environmental Science. Students taking the grade 12 examination usually take four or five subjects with English or the local language being compulsory.
Majority of the students study in the government schools where poor and vulnerable students study for free until the age of 14. These include schools runs by the state and local government as well as the centre government. Kendriya Vidyalaya project, was started for the employees of the central government of India, who are deployed throughout the country. The government started the Kendriya Vidyalaya project in 1965 to provide uniform education in institutions following the same syllabus at the same pace regardless of the location to which the employee’s family has been transferred. These are usually charitable trust run schools that receive partial funding from the government. Largest system of aided schools is run by D.
2004-5 were enrolled in private schools. Most middle-class families send their children to private schools, which might be in their own city or at distant boarding schools such as Rajkumar College, Rajkot, the oldest private school in India. Many privately owned and managed schools carry the appellation “Public”, such as the Delhi Public Schools, or Frank Anthony Public Schools. According to some research, private schools often provide superior results at a multiple of the unit cost of government schools. The reason being high aims and better vision.
In their favour, it has been pointed out that private schools cover the entire curriculum and offer extra-curricular activities such as science fairs, general knowledge, sports, music and drama. India as having 410 international schools. Home-schooling is legal in India, though it is the less explored option. The Indian Government’s stance on the issue is that parents are free to teach their children at home, if they wish to and have the means. Student may opt for vocation education or the university education. 2013, that there are more than 4,599 vocational institutions that offer degrees, diploma and post-diploma in architecture, engineering, hotel management, infrastructure, pharmacy, technology, town services and others. 4 lakh students enrolled in these schools.
Science, Medicine, Agriculture and Engineering crossed 65 lakh in 2010. The number of women choosing engineering has more than doubled since 2001. Indian Institute of Management Calcutta, Kolkata. As of 2012, India has 152 central universities, 316 state universities, and 191 private universities. Besides top rated universities which provide highly competitive world class education to their pupils, India is also home to many universities which have been founded with the sole objective of making easy money. Regulatory authorities like UGC and AICTE have been trying very hard to extirpate the menace of private universities which are running courses without any affiliation or recognition. The Government of India is aware of the plight of higher education sector and has been trying to bring reforms, however, 15 bills are still awaiting discussion and approval in the Parliament.
One of the most talked about bill is Foreign Universities Bill, which is supposed to facilitate entry of foreign universities to establish campuses in India. From the first Five-year Plan onwards, India’s emphasis was to develop a pool of scientifically inclined manpower. The UGC has inter-university centres at a number of locations throughout India to promote common research, e. Nuclear Science Centre at the Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi.
The number of graduates coming out of technical colleges increased to over 7 lakh in 2011 from 5. India’s most demanding and high-growth global industries such as Information Technology. 14 lakh students are enrolled at the secondary and higher secondary level through open and distance learning. It has a cumulative enrollment of about 15 lakh, serviced through 53 regional centres and 1,400 study centres with 25,000 counselors.
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Massive open online course are made available for free by the HRD ministry and various educational institutes. Extracurricular activities include sports, arts, National Service Scheme, National Cadet Corps, The Bharat Scouts and Guides, etc. According to the Census of 2011, “every person above the age of 7 years who can read and write with understanding in any language is said to be literate”. According to this criterion, the 2011 survey holds the National Literacy Rate to be 74. The youth literacy rate, measured within the age group of 15 to 24, is 81. Within the Indian states, Kerala has the highest literacy rate of 94.
The 2001 statistics indicated that the total number of ‘absolute non-literates’ in the country was 304 million. In 2009, two states in India, Tamil Nadu and Himachal Pradesh, participated in the international PISA exams which is administered once every three years to 15-year-old’s. While the quality of free, public education is in crisis, a majority of the urban poor have turned to private schools. Officially, the pupil to teacher ratio within the public school system for primary education is 35:1. A study on teachers by Kremer etc. Among teachers who were paid to teach, absence rates ranged from 14. Only 1 in nearly 3,000 public school head teachers had ever dismissed a teacher for repeated absence.
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As per Report of the Higher education in India, Issues Related to Expansion, Inclusiveness, Quality and Finance, the access to higher education measured in term of gross enrollment ratio increased from 0. An optimistic estimate from 2008 was that only one in five job-seekers in India ever had any sort of vocational training. India had no toilet facility while only 68. Percentage of schools with separate girls toilet have increased from 32. Modern education in India is often criticised for being based on rote learning rather than problem solving. New Indian Express says that Indian Education system seems to be producing zombies since in most of the schools students seemed to be spending majority of their time in preparing for competitive exams rather than learning or playing.
Following independence, India viewed education as an effective tool for bringing social change through community development. The administrative control was effectively initiated in the 1950s, when, in 1952, the government grouped villages under a Community Development Block—an authority under national programme which could control education in up to 100 villages. Despite some setbacks the rural education programmes continued throughout the 1950s, with support from private institutions. A sizeable network of rural education had been established by the time the Gandhigram Rural Institute was established and 5,200 Community Development Blocks were established in India. The government continued to view rural education as an agenda that could be relatively free from bureaucratic backlog and general stagnation.
However, in some cases lack of financing balanced the gains made by rural education institutes of India. Education in rural India is valued differently from in an urban setting, with lower rates of completion. The estimated number of children who have never attended school in India is near 10 crore which reflects the low completion levels. Girls in Kalleda Rural School, Andhra Pradesh. Maharanis College for Women, Mysore, India. Women have a much lower literacy rate than men.
Far fewer girls are enrolled in the schools, and many of them drop out. In the patriarchal setting of the Indian family, girls have lower status and fewer privileges than boy children. British Raj onwards to the formation of the Republic of India in 1947. Concerted efforts led to improvement from 15.
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Since 1947 the Indian government has tried to provide incentives for girls’ school attendance through programmes for midday meals, free books, and uniforms. This welfare thrust raised primary enrollment between 1951 and 1981. In 1986 the National Policy on Education decided to restructure education in tune with the social framework of each state, and with larger national goals. Sita Anantha Raman also mentions that while the educated Indian women workforce maintains professionalism, the men outnumber them in most fields and, in some cases, receive higher income for the same positions.