How are numbers and letters of alphabets produced?

How are numbers and letters of alphabets produced?

7th January 2019OffByRiseNews

The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th century BC or early 8th century BC. In its classical and modern forms, the alphabet has 24 letters, ordered from alpha to how are numbers and letters of alphabets produced?. Sound values and conventional transcriptions for some of the letters differ between Ancient Greek and Modern Greek usage, because the pronunciation of Greek has changed significantly between the 5th century BC and today.

Modern and Ancient Greek use different diacritics. In standard Modern Greek spelling, orthography has been simplified to a monotonic system, which uses only two diacritics: the acute accent and diaeresis. In both Ancient and Modern Greek, the letters of the Greek alphabet have fairly stable and consistent symbol-to-sound mappings, making pronunciation of words largely predictable. Ancient Greek spelling was generally near-phonemic. For a number of letters, sound values differ considerably between Ancient and Modern Greek, because their pronunciation has followed a set of systematic phonological shifts that affected the language in its post-classical stages. Ancient Greek stand for corresponding fricative sounds in Modern Greek.

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Among the vowel symbols, Modern Greek sound values reflect the radical simplification of the vowel system of post-classical Greek, merging multiple formerly distinct vowel phonemes into a much smaller number. This leads to several groups of vowel letters denoting identical sounds today. Modern Greek orthography remains true to the historical spellings in most of these cases. In other countries, students of Ancient Greek may use a variety of conventional approximations of the historical sound system in pronouncing Ancient Greek. Several letter combinations have special conventional sound values different from those of their single components. Among them are several digraphs of vowel letters that formerly represented diphthongs but are now monophthongized. These signs were originally designed to mark different forms of the phonological pitch accent in Ancient Greek.

By the time their use became conventional and obligatory in Greek writing, in late antiquity, pitch accent was evolving into a single stress accent, and thus the three signs have not corresponded to a phonological distinction in actual speech ever since. In 1982, a new, simplified orthography, known as “monotonic”, was adopted for official use in Modern Greek by the Greek state. There are many different methods of rendering Greek text or Greek names in the Latin script. The form in which classical Greek names are conventionally rendered in English goes back to the way Greek loanwords were incorporated into Latin in antiquity. For Modern Greek, there are multiple different transcription conventions. They differ widely, depending on their purpose, on how close they stay to the conventional letter correspondences of Ancient Greek-based transcription systems, and to what degree they attempt either an exact letter-by-letter transliteration or rather a phonetically based transcription.

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Dipylon inscription, one of the oldest known samples of the use of the Greek alphabet, c. During the Mycenaean period, from around the 16th century to the 12th century BC, Linear B was used to write the earliest attested form of the Greek language, known as Mycenaean Greek. This writing system, unrelated to the Greek alphabet, last appeared in the 13th century BC. Greek initially took over all of the 22 letters of Phoenician. The origin of these letters is a matter of some debate. Greek was originally written predominantly from right to left, just like Phoenician, but scribes could freely alternate between directions.

How are numbers and letters of alphabets produced?

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Greek alphabet, which differed in the use and non-use of the additional vowel and consonant symbols and several other features. When the Greeks adapted the Phoenician alphabet, they took over not only the letter shapes and sound values, but also the names by which the sequence of the alphabet could be recited and memorized. The Greek names of the following letters are more or less straightforward continuations of their Phoenician antecedents. In the cases of the three historical sibilant letters below, the correspondence between Phoenician and Ancient Greek is less clear, with apparent mismatches both in letter names and sound values. Here too, the changes in the pronunciation of the letter names between Ancient and Modern Greek are regular. Their modern names contain adjectival qualifiers that were added during the Byzantine period, to distinguish between letters that had become confusable. Theocritus Idyll 1, lines 12-14, in script with abbreviations and ligatures from a caption in an illustrated edition of Theocritus.

How are numbers and letters of alphabets produced?

Lodewijk Caspar Valckenaer: Carmina bucolica, Leiden 1779. Like Latin and other alphabetic scripts, Greek originally had only a single form of each letter, without a distinction between uppercase and lowercase. This distinction is an innovation of the modern era, drawing on different lines of development of the letter shapes in earlier handwriting. The oldest forms of the letters in antiquity are majuscule forms.

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In the 9th and 10th century, uncial book hands were replaced with a new, more compact writing style, with letter forms partly adapted from the earlier cursive. This minuscule style remained the dominant form of handwritten Greek into the modern era. Cyrillic” and “Cyrillic alphabet” redirect here. For national variants of the Cyrillic script, see Cyrillic alphabets. Romanian Cyrillic – Lord’s Prayer text. This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks or boxes, misplaced vowels or missing conjuncts instead of Cyrillic letters. Cyrillic is derived from the Greek uncial script, augmented by letters from the older Glagolitic alphabet, including some ligatures. In the early 18th century, the Cyrillic script used in Russia was heavily reformed by Peter the Great, who had recently returned from his Grand Embassy in western Europe. Cyrillic script spread throughout the East Slavic and some South Slavic territories, being adopted for writing local languages, such as Old East Slavic. Its adaptation to local languages produced a number of Cyrillic alphabets, discussed hereafter. Capital and lowercase letters were not distinguished in old manuscripts.

The letters also had numeric values, based not on Cyrillic alphabetical order, but inherited from the letters’ Greek ancestors. The early Cyrillic alphabet is difficult to represent on computers. Many of the letterforms differed from modern Cyrillic, varied a great deal in manuscripts, and changed over time. Few fonts include adequate glyphs to reproduce the alphabet. 1 standard, released on 4 April 2008, greatly improves computer support for the early Cyrillic and the modern Church Slavonic language.

In Microsoft Windows, the Segoe UI user interface font is notable for having complete support for the archaic Cyrillic letters since Windows 8. The development of Cyrillic typography passed directly from the medieval stage to the late Baroque, without a Renaissance phase as in Western Europe. Peter the Great, Czar of Russia, mandated the use of westernized letter forms in the early 18th century. Over time, these were largely adopted in the other languages that use the script. Cyrillic uppercase and lowercase letter forms are not as differentiated as in Latin typography.

In Standard Serbian, as well as in Macedonian, some italic and cursive letters are different from those used in other languages. These letter shapes are often used in upright fonts as well, especially for advertisements, road signs, inscriptions, posters and the like, less so in newspapers or books. The following table shows the differences between the upright and italic Cyrillic letters of the Russian alphabet. Italic forms significantly different from their upright analogues, or especially confusing to users of a Latin alphabet, are highlighted. Also available as a graphical image. Distribution of the Cyrillic script worldwide. Cyrillic is the sole official script.

Cyrillic is co-official with another alphabet. In the cases of Moldova and Georgia, this is in breakaway regions not recognized by the central government. Cyrillic is not official, but is in common use as a legacy script. The first alphabet derived from Cyrillic was Abur, used for the Komi language. Other Cyrillic alphabets include the Molodtsov alphabet for the Komi language and various alphabets for Caucasian languages.

Since the script was conceived and popularised by the followers of Cyril and Methodius, rather than by Cyril and Methodius themselves, its name denotes homage rather than authorship. A page from Azbuka, the first Ruthenian language textbook, printed by Ivan Fyodorov in 1574. This page features the Cyrillic alphabet. The Cyrillic script was created in the First Bulgarian Empire. Cyrillic and Glagolitic were used for the Church Slavonic language, especially the Old Church Slavonic variant.

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The Cyrillic script came to dominate Glagolitic in the 12th century. The literature produced in the Old Bulgarian language soon spread north and became the lingua franca of the Balkans and Eastern Europe, where it came to also be known as Old Church Slavonic. Map showing the expansion of the use of Latin alphabet in areas of former Yugoslavia. Map of European countries by script of national language. Standard Serbian uses both the Cyrillic and Latin scripts. The Zhuang alphabet, used between the 1950s and 1980s in portions of the People’s Republic of China, used a mixture of Latin, phonetic, numeral-based, and Cyrillic letters. The non-Latin letters, including Cyrillic, were removed from the alphabet in 1982 and replaced with Latin letters that closely resembled the letters they replaced.

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There are various systems for Romanization of Cyrillic text, including transliteration to convey Cyrillic spelling in Latin letters, and transcription to convey pronunciation. Scientific transliteration, used in linguistics, is based on the Bosnian and Croatian Latin alphabet. The Working Group on Romanization Systems of the United Nations recommends different systems for specific languages. These are the most commonly used around the world. ISO 9:1995, from the International Organization for Standardization. GOST 16876, a now defunct Soviet transliteration standard. 79, which is ISO 9 equivalent.

Volapuk encoding, an informal rendering of Cyrillic text over Latin-alphabet ASCII. Representing other writing systems with Cyrillic letters is called Cyrillization. 045F are basically the characters from ISO 8859-5 moved upward by 864 positions. 0489 are historic letters, not used now. 052F are additional letters for various languages that are written with Cyrillic script.

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Unicode as a general rule does not include accented Cyrillic letters. Old and New Church Slavonic combinations: Ѷ, Ѿ, Ѽ. Some languages, including Church Slavonic, are still not fully supported. 1, released on 4 April 2008, introduces major changes to the Cyrillic blocks. Punctuation for Cyrillic text is similar to that used in European Latin-alphabet languages.

8-bit Cyrillic character encoding established by Microsoft for use in MS-DOS also known as GOST-alternative. Cyrillic characters go in their native order, with a “window” for pseudographic characters. Invented in the USSR for use on Soviet clones of American IBM and DEC computers. KOI8-R with addition of Ukrainian letters. 8-bit native Bulgarian character encoding for use in Microsoft DOS. 8-bit Cyrillic character encoding established by Microsoft for use in Microsoft Windows. 0xff, with rarely used “YO” characters somewhere else.

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Each language has its own standard keyboard layout, adopted from typewriters. The Slavs: Their Early History and Civilization. Boston: American Academy of Arts and Sciences. The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire”. Oxford History of the Christian Church. Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica Incorporated, Warren E. Encyclopedia of World Cultures, David H.

Meyers, The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East, p. Old Church Slavonic Grammar, Seventh Edition, 2001. Russian refers to a particular font family JPG Archived 26 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Alphabet soup as Kazakh leader orders switch from Cyrillic to Latin letters”.

Greek missionaries, brothers, called Apostles to the Slavs and fathers of Slavonic literature. Encyclopædia Britannica, Major alphabets of the world, Cyrillic and Glagolitic alphabets, 2008, O. The two early Slavic alphabets, the Cyrillic and the Glagolitic, were invented by St. These men from Thessaloniki who became apostles to the southern Slavs, whom they converted to Christianity. On the relationship of old Church Slavonic to the written language of early Rus'” Horace G. Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction, p. Short History of the Cyrillic Alphabet.

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Liubliana: Facultad de Filosofía y Letras de la Universidad de Liubliana. Georgian Scientific Journal of Literary Theory and Comparative Literature, N 17, 2016, pp. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cyrillic script. Look up Appendix:Cyrillic script in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. The Cyrillic Charset Soup overview and history of Cyrillic charsets. Cyrillic Alphabets of Slavic Languages review of Cyrillic charsets in Slavic Languages. Latin Alphabet for the Russian Language”.

The course is intended for Hearing adult second-language learners who are familiar with English, learning ASL, and reasonably computer literate. Click on the above link for an example of the syllabus is being used for Dr. Bill’s EDS 156 Course at Sacramento State. Check with your local instructor for a copy of the syllabus that applies to your own class. Answer:  Fingerspelling is the process of spelling out words by using signs that correspond to the letters of the word. There are many different manual alphabets throughout the world.