Children with intellectual disabilities or other developmental conditions mental retardation compete in the Special Olympics. Once focused almost entirely on cognition, the definition now includes both a component relating to mental functioning and one relating to individuals’ functional skills in their environments. As a result of this focus on the person’s abilities in practice, a person with an unusually low IQ may not be considered to have intellectually disability.
Intellectual disability is subdivided into syndromic intellectual disability, in which intellectual deficits associated with other medical and behavioral signs and symptoms are present, and non-syndromic intellectual disability, in which intellectual deficits appear without other abnormalities. Seventy-five to ninety percent of the affected people have mild intellectual disability. The level of impairment ranges in severity for each person. Speech delays are particularly common signs of moderate ID. People with moderate intellectual disability need considerable supports in school, at home, and in the community in order to fully participate.
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While their academic potential is limited, they can learn simple health and safety skills and to participate in simple activities. People with severe or profound ID need more intensive support and supervision their entire lives. They may learn some ADLs, but an intellectual disability is considered severe or profound when individuals are unable to independently care for themselves without ongoing significant assistance from a caregiver throughout adulthood. Down syndrome is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability. Among children, the cause of intellectual disability is unknown for one-third to one-half of cases. Genetic defects that cause intellectual disability but are not inherited can be caused by accidents or mutations in genetic development.
Sometimes disability is caused by abnormal genes inherited from parents, errors when genes combine, or other reasons. Intellectual disability can result when the fetus does not develop properly. For example, there may be a problem with the way the fetus’ cells divide as it grows. If a baby has problems during labor and birth, such as not getting enough oxygen, he or she may have developmental disability due to brain damage.
Exposure to certain types of disease or toxins. Iodine deficiency, affecting approximately 2 billion people worldwide, is the leading preventable cause of intellectual disability in areas of the developing world where iodine deficiency is endemic. Malnutrition is a common cause of reduced intelligence in parts of the world affected by famine, such as Ethiopia. It is formally diagnosed by an assessment of IQ and adaptive behavior. A third condition requiring onset during the developmental period is used to distinguish intellectual disability from other conditions dementia such as Alzheimer’s disease or traumatic brain injuries. Binet Intelligence Scales, was adapted from a test battery designed for school placement by Alfred Binet in France.
Since current diagnosis of intellectual disability is not based on IQ scores alone, but must also take into consideration a person’s adaptive functioning, the diagnosis is not made rigidly. To assess adaptive behavior, professionals compare the functional abilities of a child to those of other children of similar age. To measure adaptive behavior, professionals use structured interviews, with which they systematically elicit information about persons’ functioning in the community from people who know them well. By most definitions, intellectual disability is more accurately considered a disability rather than a disease. Intellectual disability can be distinguished in many ways from mental illness, such as schizophrenia or depression. There are thousands of agencies around the world that provide assistance for people with developmental disabilities.
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They include state-run, for-profit, and non-profit, privately run agencies. Beyond that, there are specific programs that people with developmental disabilities can take part in wherein they learn basic life skills. These “goals” may take a much longer amount of time for them to accomplish, but the ultimate goal is independence. This may be anything from independence in tooth brushing to an independent residence. These include psychosocial treatments, behavioral treatments, cognitive-behavioral treatments, and family-oriented strategies. Core components of behavioral treatments include language and social skills acquisition. Typically, one-to-one training is offered in which a therapist uses a shaping procedure in combination with positive reinforcements to help the child pronounce syllables until words are completed.
Although there is no specific medication for intellectual disability, many people with developmental disabilities have further medical complications and may be prescribed several medications. For example, autistic children with developmental delay may be prescribed antipsychotics or mood stabilizers to help with their behavior. About a quarter of cases are caused by a genetic disorder. Intellectual disability has been documented under a variety of names throughout history. Throughout much of human history, society was unkind to those with any type of disability, and people with intellectual disability were commonly viewed as burdens on their families.
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Greek and Roman philosophers, who valued reasoning abilities, disparaged people with intellectual disability as barely human. Negative stereotypes were prominent in social attitudes of the time. In the 13th century, England declared people with intellectual disability to be incapable of making decisions or managing their affairs. Guardianships were created to take over their financial affairs. In the 17th century, Thomas Willis provided the first description of intellectual disability as a disease. He believed that it was caused by structural problems in the brain. According to Willis, the anatomical problems could be either an inborn condition or acquired later in life.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, housing and care moved away from families and towards an asylum model. In the late 19th century, in response to Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species, Francis Galton proposed selective breeding of humans to reduce intellectual disability. In 1905, Alfred Binet produced the first standardized test for measuring intelligence in children. Although ancient Roman law had declared people with intellectual disability to be incapable of the deliberate intent to harm that was necessary for a person to commit a crime, during the 1920s, Western society believed they were morally degenerate. Ignoring the prevailing attitude, Civitans adopted service to people with developmental disabilities as a major organizational emphasis in 1952. Their earliest efforts included workshops for special education teachers and daycamps for children with disabilities, all at a time when such training and programs were almost nonexistent.
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The publication of this book may be regarded as the first move towards the widespread adoption of the social model of disability in regard to these types of disabilities, and was the impetus for the development of government strategies for desegregation. From the 1960s to the present, most states have moved towards the elimination of segregated institutions. By the mid-1970s, most governments had committed to de-institutionalization, and had started preparing for the wholesale movement of people into the general community, in line with the principles of normalization. In the past, lead poisoning and infectious diseases were significant causes of intellectual disability. Some causes of intellectual disability are decreasing, as medical advances, such as vaccination, increase. Along with the changes in terminology, and the downward drift in acceptability of the old terms, institutions of all kinds have had to repeatedly change their names. This affects the names of schools, hospitals, societies, government departments, and academic journals.
For example, the Midlands Institute of Mental Subnormality became the British Institute of Mental Handicap and is now the British Institute of Learning Disability. The terms used for this condition are subject to a process called the euphemism treadmill. This means that whatever term is chosen for this condition, it eventually becomes perceived as an insult. For example, the British census of 1901 has a column heading including the terms imbecile and feeble-minded. Negative connotations associated with these numerous terms for intellectual disability reflect society’s attitude about the condition. Some elements of society seek neutral medical terms, while others want to use such terms as weapons of abuse.
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Today, new expressions like developmentally disabled, special, or challenged are replacing the term mentally retarded. The term developmental delay is popular among caretakers and parents of individuals with intellectual disability because delay suggests that a person is slowly reaching his or her full potential rather than having a lifelong condition. Usage has changed over the years and differed from country to country. For example, mental retardation in some contexts covers the whole field but previously applied to what is now the mild MR group. Feeble-minded used to mean mild MR in the UK, and once applied in the US to the whole field. Cretin is the oldest and comes from a dialectal French word for Christian. Amentia has a long history, mostly associated with dementia.
The difference between amentia and dementia was originally defined by time of onset. Amentia was the term used to denote an individual who developed deficits in mental functioning early in life, while dementia included individuals who develop mental deficiencies as adults. This term long in use in psychiatry in this sense. Idiot indicated the greatest degree of intellectual disability, where the mental age is two years or less, and the person cannot guard himself or herself against common physical dangers. Imbecile indicated an intellectual disability less extreme than idiocy and not necessarily inherited. It is now usually subdivided into two categories, known as severe intellectual disability and moderate intellectual disability. Moron was defined by the American Association for the Study of the Feeble-minded in 1910, following work by Henry H.
75 who can progress academically to a late elementary level. Retarded comes from the Latin retardare, “to make slow, delay, keep back, or hinder,” so mental retardation meant the same as mentally delayed. The term was recorded in 1426 as a “fact or action of making slower in movement or time. The first record of retarded in relation to being mentally slow was in 1895.
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The term mental retardation was a diagnostic term denoting the group of disconnected categories of mental functioning such as idiot, imbecile, and moron derived from early IQ tests, which acquired pejorative connotations in popular discourse. The phrase intellectual disability is increasingly being used as a synonym for people with significantly below-average cognitive ability. These terms are sometimes used as a means of separating general intellectual limitations from specific, limited deficits as well as indicating that it is not an emotional or psychological disability. It is not specific to congenital disorders such as Down syndrome. A BBC poll conducted in the United Kingdom came to the conclusion that ‘retard’ was the most offensive disability-related word. In the past, Australia has used British and American terms interchangeably, including “mental retardation” and “mental handicap”.
Today, “intellectual disability” is the preferred and more commonly used descriptor. People with intellectual disabilities are often not seen as full citizens of society. Person-centered planning and approaches are seen as methods of addressing the continued labeling and exclusion of socially devalued people, such as people with disabilities, encouraging a focus on the person as someone with capacities and gifts as well as support needs. Until the middle of the 20th century, people with intellectual disabilities were routinely excluded from public education, or educated away from other typically developing children.
1,014,000 per person, in 2003 US dollars. This is slightly more than the costs associated with cerebral palsy, and double that associated with serious vision or hearing impairments. People with intellectual disability as a group have higher rates of adverse health conditions such as epilepsy and neurological disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, and behavioral and psychiatric problems compared to people without disabilities. Clinical and Educational Child Psychology an Ecological-Transactional Approach to Understanding Child Problems and Interventions. GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence, Collaborators.
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Archived from the original on 2007-03-20. Frequently Asked Questions on Intellectual Disability”. The term intellectual disability covers the same population of individuals who were diagnosed previously with mental retardation in number, kind, level, type, duration of disability, and the need of people with this disability for individualized services and supports. Website of the UK’s leading learning disability charity, which uses that term throughout. Archived from the original on 2014-10-26. Special Educational Needs and Disability: A. The path from cinema to playground”.
Ofcom says TV channels have ‘human right’ to broadcast offensive material”. Australian Psychological Society : Psychologists and intellectual disability”. Young people with intellectual disabilities attending mainstream and segregated schooling: perceived stigma, social comparison and future aspirations”. Economic costs associated with mental retardation, cerebral palsy, hearing loss, and vision impairment—United States, 2003″.
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