Physics of Toys

5th June 2018OffByRiseNews

The tube extends nearly all the way into the bottom bulb, and attaches to the top bulb but does physics of Toys extend into it. The space inside the bird contains a fluid, usually colored. The fluid is typically dichloromethane, also known as methylene chloride.

Air is removed from the apparatus during manufacture, so the space inside the body is filled by vapor evaporated from the fluid. The upper bulb has a “beak” attached which, along with the head, is covered in a felt-like material. Despite the drinking bird’s appearance and classification as a toy there is a potential danger of thin shards of glass should the bulb break. Early models were often filled with highly flammable substances, though the fluid in later versions is nonflammable. Dichloromethane can irritate the skin on contact and the lungs if inhaled. It may be dangerous to people with pre-existing heart, liver, or nervous system conditions and is a suspected carcinogen.

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The drinking bird is a heat engine that exploits a temperature difference to convert heat energy to a pressure difference within the device, and performs mechanical work. Like all heat engines, the drinking bird works through a thermodynamic cycle. The water evaporates from the felt on the head. The temperature decrease causes some of the dichloromethane vapor in the head to condense.

The higher vapor pressure in the warmer base pushes the liquid up the neck. As the liquid rises, the bird becomes top heavy and tips over. When the bird tips over, the bottom end of the neck tube rises above the surface of the liquid. A bubble of warm vapor rises up the tube through this gap, displacing liquid as it goes. Pressure equalizes between top and bottom bulbs. The liquid in the bottom bulb is heated by ambient air, which is at a temperature slightly higher than the temperature of the bird’s head.

If a glass of water is placed so that the beak dips into it on its descent, the bird will continue to absorb water and the cycle will continue as long as there is enough water in the glass to keep the head wet. However, the bird will continue to dip even without a source of water, as long as the head is wet, or as long as a temperature differential is maintained between the head and body. The drinking bird is an exhibition of several physical laws and is therefore a staple of basic chemistry and physics education. The combined gas law, which establishes a proportional relationship between temperature and pressure exerted by a gas in a constant volume. The ideal gas law, which establishes a proportional relationship between number of gas particles and pressure in a constant volume.

Capillary action of the wicking felt. Wet-bulb temperature: The temperature difference between the head and body depends on the relative humidity of the air. By considering the difference between the wet and dry bulb temperatures, it is possible to develop a mathematical expression to calculate the maximum work that can be produced from a given amount of water “drunk”. Such analysis is based on the definition of the Carnot heat engine efficiency and the psychrometric concepts. In 1767 Benjamin Franklin visited Germany, saw a pulse hammer, and in 1768, improved it.

Landis got a patent for a similar oscillating motor. Iske brothers got a patent for a similar motor. Unlike the drinking bird, the lower tank was heated and the upper tank just air-cooled in this engine. Other than that, it used the same principle. 1930s named insatiable birdie is described in Yakov Perelman’s Physics for Entertainment.

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The drinking bird has been used in many fictional contexts to automatically press buttons. In The Simpsons episode “King-Size Homer”, Homer used one to repeatedly press a key on a computer keyboard. Drinking birds have been featured as plot elements in the 1951 Merrie Melodies cartoon Putty Tat Trouble and the 1968 science fiction thriller The Power. In Australian contemporary playwright John Romeril’s play The Floating World, drinking birds are a symbolic prop which represent the progression of Les’s insanity. They are referred to as “dippy birds” and are perhaps used to symbolize such a thing due to Romeril’s opinion of drinking birds being that they are insane for their uselessness and repeatability. In 2003 an alternative mechanism was devised by Nadine Abraham and Peter Palffy-Muhoray of Ohio, USA, that utilizes capillary action combined with evaporation to produce motion, but has no volatile working fluid.

Their paper “A Dunking Bird of the Second Kind” , was submitted to the American Journal of Physics, and published in June 2004. This bird works as follows: It is balanced such that, when dry, it tips into a head-down position. The bird is placed next to a water source such that this position brings its beak into contact with water. Minto wheel – A heat engine consisting of a set of sealed chambers with volatile fluid inside just as in the drinking bird.

The chambers are arranged in a circle, with each chamber connected to the chamber opposite so that it produces rotary motion from a small temperature difference. Thermodynamics – The branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work. US Department of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information. Three hand-solved thermodynamics exercises for fun”.

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Polytechnic School, University of Sao Paulo. English Mechanic and World of Science. Journal of the Society of Arts. Modo di utilizzare il calorico dell’ ambiente per produrre un piccolo lavoro” .

Sullivan also holds patents on several novelty items such as the well-known drinking bird. Archived from the original on 2012-03-10. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Drinking bird. Brady Haran for the University of Nottingham.

This page was last edited on 17 March 2018, at 19:37. Box2DFlash Box2DFlash is a free 2D physics engine for Flash. It’s a popular choice for making games and toys in. You need Flash to view this content. Box2DFlash is an actionscript library, do you really think you could avoid Flash on the website? Binary toys presents a collection of interactive windowless virtual toys made up of springs, muscles, and masses.

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Originally created by Soda, based on simple physics, these toys exhibit complex behavior and are surprisingly life-like. While playing, get hold of a node to move your virtual toy around or to drop it on top of a window. Right-click to access a pop-up menu with additional options. Pataphysics is a concept expressed by Jarry in a mock-scientific manner with undertones of spoofing and quackery, in his fictional book Exploits and Opinions of Dr. Faustroll, Pataphysician, in which Jarry riddles and toys with conventional concepts and interpretations of reality. There are over one hundred differing definitions of ‘pataphysics.

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Pataphysics is the science of that which is superinduced upon metaphysics, whether within or beyond the latter’s limitations, extending as far beyond metaphysics as the latter extends beyond physics. Pataphysics will be, above all, the science of the particular, despite the common opinion that the only science is that of the general. Pataphysics will examine the laws governing exceptions, and will explain the universe supplementary to this one. Pataphysics passes easily from one state of apparent definition to another. Thus it can present itself under the aspect of a gas, a liquid or a solid. Jarry performs humorously on behalf of literature what Nietzsche performs seriously on behalf of philosophy. Jarry mandated the inclusion of the apostrophe in the orthography, ‘pataphysique and ‘pataphysics, “to avoid a simple pun”.

The words pataphysician or pataphysicist and the adjective pataphysical should not include the apostrophe. Since the apostrophe in no way affects the meaning or pronunciation of pataphysics, this spelling of the term is a sly notation, to the reader, suggesting a variety of puns that listeners may hear, or be aware of. The Collège de ‘Pataphysique, founded in 1948 in Paris, France, is “a society committed to learned and inutilious research”. The word ‘inutilious’ is synonymous with ‘useless’.

The permanent head of the college is the Inamovable Curator, Dr. The Vice-Curator is the “first and most senior living entity” in the college’s hierarchy. Jean-Christophe Averty was appointed Satrap in 1990. Cahiers, Dossiers and the Subsidia Pataphysica. Although France had been always the centre of the pataphysical globe, there are followers up in different cities around the world. In 1966 Juan Esteban Fassio was commissioned to draw the map of the Collège de ‘Pataphysique and its institutes abroad.

The college stopped its public activities between 1975 and 2000, referred to as its occultation. However through that time, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, Canada, The Netherlands, and many other countries showed that the internationalization of ‘pataphysics was irreversible. In the 1950s, Buenos Aires in the Western Hemisphere and Milan in Europe were the first cities to have pataphysical institutes. During the communist era, a small group of ‘pataphysicists in Czechoslovakia started a journal called PAKO, or Pataphysical Collegium. Jarry’s plays had a lasting impression on the country’s underground philosophical scene. The London Institute of ‘Pataphysics was established in September 2000 to promote ‘pataphysics in the English-speaking world.

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The Institute also contains a pataphysical museum and archive and organised the Anthony Hancock Paintings and Sculptures exhibition in 2002. The official orchestra of the London Institute of ‘Pataphysics is the London Snorkelling Team. Musée Patamécanique is a private museum located in Bristol, Rhode Island. A ‘Pataphysics Institute opened in Vilnius, Lithuania in May 2013. Clinamen A clinamen is the unpredictable swerve of atoms that Bök calls “the smallest possible aberration that can make the greatest possible difference”.

The Grand Gidouille on Ubu’s belly is a symbol of ‘pataphysics. Antinomy An antinomy is the mutually incompatible. It represents the duality of things, the echo or symmetry, the good and the evil at the same time. Hugill mentions various examples including the plus minus, the faust-troll, the haldern-ablou, the yes-but, the ha-ha and the paradox.

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The pataphysical calendar is a variation of the Gregorian calendar. The Collège de ‘Pataphysique created the calendar in 1949. The week starts on a Sunday. Each day is assigned a specific name or saint. The year has a total of 13 months each with 29 days. The table below shows the names and order of months in a pataphysical year with their corresponding Gregorian dates and approximate translations or meanings by Hugill. In the 1960s ‘pataphysics was used as a conceptual principle within various fine art forms, especially pop art and popular culture.

Pataphysics and pataphysicians feature prominently in several linked works by science fiction writer Pat Murphy. The philosopher Jean Baudrillard is often described as a pataphysician and identified as such for some part of his life. American writer Pablo Lopez has developed an extension of ‘pataphysics called the pataphor. In the song “Maxwell’s Silver Hammer” on the Beatles album Abbey Road, “‘Pataphysical science” is mentioned as a course of study for Maxwell Edison’s first victim, Joan. Professor Andrew Hugill, of De Montfort University, is a practitioner of pataphysical music. British progressive rock band Soft Machine were self-described as “the Official Orchestra of the College of Pataphysics” and featured the two songs “Pataphysical Introduction” parts I and II on their 1969 album Volume Two.

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Japanese psychedelic rock band Acid Mothers Temple refer to the topic on their 1999 release Pataphisical Freak Out MU! Science Of Imaginary Solutions” on their second album Transit Transit. Regent in 2001 and a Transcendent Satrap in 2015 at the pataphysical New Year’s Eve Vigil E. In 1962 American artist James E. Brewton developed a style of abstract expressionism he called Graffiti Pataphysic.

A survey of Brewton’s ‘pataphysics-related work was shown in 2014 in Philadelphia. American artist Thomas Chimes developed an interest in Jarry’s ‘pataphysics, which became a lifelong passion, inspiring much of the painter’s creative work. In 2000,The Laboratory of Feminist Pataphysics was founded by Canadian visual artist, writer and scholar, Mireille Perron. The League of Imaginary Scientists, a Los Angeles-based art collective specializing in ‘pataphysics-based interactive experiments. In 2011 they exhibited a series of projects at Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles.

Pablo Lopez, for an unusually extended metaphor based on Alfred Jarry’s “science” of ‘pataphysics’. As Jarry claimed that ‘pataphysics existed “as far from metaphysics as metaphysics extends from regular reality”, a pataphor attempts to create a figure of speech that exists as far from metaphor as metaphor exists from non-figurative language. The pataphor may also be said to function as a critical tool, describing the world of “assumptions based on assumptions”—such as belief systems or rhetoric run amok. Tom and Alice stood side by side in the lunch line.

Tom and Alice stood side by side in the lunch line, two pieces positioned on a chessboard. Tom took a step closer to Alice and made a date for Friday night, checkmating. Rudy was furious at losing to Margaret so easily and dumped the board on the rose-colored quilt, stomping downstairs. Thus, the pataphor has created a world where the chessboard exists, including the characters who live in that world, entirely abandoning the original context.

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Art Chicago, other artworks, and architectural works. There is also a book of pataphorical art called Pataphor by Dutch artist Hidde van Schie. It is worth noting that a pataphor is not the traditional metaphorical conceit but rather a set of metaphors built upon an initial metaphor, obscuring its own origin rather than reiterating the same analogy in myriad ways. In The Disappearance of Literature: Blanchot, Agamben, and the Writers of the No, Aaron Hillyer writes: “While metaphysics and metaphors attain one degree of separation from reality, pataphors and pataphysics move beyond by two degrees. This allows an idea to assume its own life, a sort of plasticity freed from the harness of rigid representation. In other words, metaphors operate on the level of the same.

American Heritage Dictionary entry at Dictionary. List of publications Archived 26 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Oulipo: a primer of potential literature. Paul Avion’s Pataphor” Archived 21 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine.

Reference number 1230, published 1954, as listed in the college’s catalogue Archived 26 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Redhead, Steve, Columbia University Press, 2008, pp. 100 Records That Set The World On Fire . Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. The sounds and silences of Andrew Hugill by various artists”. 10 Supremely Nerdy Language Tidbits – Listverse”. Archived from the original on 27 April 2015.

Real Thing  Not A Real Thing”. Archived from the original on 8 January 2014. P o s e d p hi l . El Clarín de Chile – Patafísica y patáforas”.

The Life of Insects” as a pataphor”. A Collaborative Review of Amy Catanzano’s Starlight in Two Million – Queen Mob’s Tea House”. NEXT Art Fair – Events – Art in America”. Pataphor – Hidde van Schie – TENT Rotterdam”. Pop Mechanics: An Introduction to Musique Actuelle. The Disappearance of Literature: Blanchot, Agamben, and the Writers of the No. Alfred Jarry: A Critical and Biographical Study.