Menu IconA vertical stack of three evenly spaced horizontal lines. Parenting is one of the hardest jobs in the world. Though it can be difficult for studies to determine what parenting techniques are ideal since researchers usually don’t follow families long-term, there are certain parental behaviors that scientists spanking Linked to Increase in Children’s Behavior Problems found could be linked to problems in children, like depression and anxiety, later in life.
They don’t encourage their kids to be independent. In 1997, a study at Vanderbilt University found that parents who psychologically controlled their children created to a host of negative outcomes for kids, including low self-confidence and self-reliance. Additionally, this study found evidence that more independence could lead to an increase in teens’ ability to resist peer pressure. They yell at their kids — a lot. A 2013 study out of the University of Pittsburgh found evidence that harsh verbal discipline like shouting, cursing, or using insults may be detrimental to kids’ well-being in the long-term.
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The two-year study also found that harsh verbal discipline had comparable negative effects — such as behavioral problems and depressive symptoms — to studies that focused on physical discipline. While being an involved parent is a good thing, being a “helicopter parent,” or a parent who is over-controlling, could result in higher levels of anxiety and depression in children. Students who reported having over-controlling parents reported significantly higher levels of depression and less satisfaction with life,” researchers wrote in a 2013 study of nearly 300 college students in the Journal of Child and Family Studies. The researchers found that children with so-called “helicopter parents” were less open to new ideas, more self-conscious, and happened to use more pain pills recreationally. They let their children decide their bed times. Researchers from the UK found a link between irregular bedtimes and worsening behavior scores, which included hyperactivity, conduct problems, peer issues, and emotional difficulties. Plus, irregular bedtimes could affect the developing brain.
We know that early child development has profound influences on health and wellbeing across the life course. It follows that disruptions to sleep, especially if they occur at key times in development, could have important lifelong impacts on health,” one of the study’s authors, Yvonne Kelly, told Medical News Daily. They let them watch TV when they’re really young. Though screen time has been a parental boogieman for decades, it seems there may be cause for concern.
Authoritarian parents who are demanding and discourage open communication. To put that in a real world context, authoritarian parents might say, “You need to get straight A’s because I said so. It’s a strict guideline without any rationale the child can understand. On the other hand, authoritative parents would explain that good grades help kids learn and advance in life. Authoritarian parenting could lead to inhibited performance in school, according to a 2005 study in Educational Psychology Review, though the author notes that “these findings are not consistent across culture, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.
They use their cellphones frequently around their kids. The study was in rats, so we don’t know yet if it could apply to humans. At the very least, our technology-induced distractions can’t be a great thing. And a 2015 Pennsylvania State University study posited that smartphone usage “poses a real danger to the welfare and development of children. They’re cold or distant towards their children. Though it may seem obvious, there’s no replacement for developing a healthy, positive bond with your child.
Multiple studies have found low levels of parental warmth can contribute to behavioral problems as well as insecurity and emotional difficulties in children and adolescents. Kids who don’t get parental praise may also experience social withdrawal and anxiety, according to one 1986 study. They use spanking as a punishment. Spanking’s effect on children has been studied since the ’80s and the punishment has consistently been tied to hyperactivity, aggression, and oppositional behavior in children. In a 2000 study, researchers found that first graders with behavioral problems whose parents spanked them were more likely to be disruptive. And in 2016, a University of Texas at Austin analysis confirmed that based on 50 years of research on 160,000 children, spanking was associated with mental health problems and cognitive difficulties. Read the original article on Tech Insider.
Follow Tech Insider on Facebook and Twitter. Please forward this error screen to 64. Think spanking will help teach an out of control child to stay in line? A new study suggests the opposite may be true. Researchers found kids who were spanked as five-year-olds were slightly more likely to be aggressive and break rules later in elementary school. Those results are in keeping with past research, said Elizabeth Gershoff. She studies parental discipline and its effects at the University of Texas at Austin.
There’s just no evidence that spanking is good for kids,” she told Reuters Health. Spanking models aggression as a way of solving problems, that you can hit people and get what you want,” Gershoff, who wasn’t involved in the new study, said. Despite mounting evidence on the harms tied to spanking, it is “still a very typical experience” for U. His team used data from a long-term study of children born in one of 20 U. The new report includes about 1,900 kids. Researchers surveyed parents when children were three and five years old about whether and how often they spanked their child. Then they asked mothers about their kid’s behavior problems and gave the children a vocabulary test at age nine.
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A total of 57 percent of mothers and 40 percent of fathers said they spanked children when they were three years old. That fell slightly to 52 percent of mothers and 33 percent of fathers who spanked at age five. Children acted out more and were more aggressive when they had been spanked by their mothers as five-year-olds, whether regularly or occasionally. Spanking by mothers at least twice a week was tied to a two-point increase on a 70-point scale of problem behavior.
That was after the researchers took into account children’s behavior at younger ages and other family characteristics. There was no link between spanking by parents at age three and children’s later behavior, however. The average vocabulary score for all nine-year-olds in the study was 93, slightly below the test-wide standard score of 100. Frequent spanking by fathers was linked to a four-point lower score. But the researchers couldn’t be sure that small difference wasn’t due to chance. Gershoff said the finding is a bit hard to interpret.
I don’t think that spanking makes kids stupider,” she said. It’s possible that parents who are spanking are not talking to their children as often, Gershoff said. Or kids who are spanked and act out could be more distracted in the classroom. When it comes to disciplining children, she said there’s more evidence on what doesn’t work long-term than what does. We know that spanking doesn’t work, we know that yelling doesn’t work,” Gershoff said. Timeout is kind of a mixed bag.
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We know that reasoning does work. It’s strongly associated with immediate compliance,” he told Reuters Health. Children will change their behavior in the moment. Because family strain and spanking often go together, he said doctors should try to support stressed parents to encourage more positive forms of discipline.
Get Daily News stories, delivered to your inbox. Sign up now to start receiving breaking news alerts on your desktop. The incident turned up the heat under a simmering national argument about how to discipline children and about ethnic and regional differences in the use of corporal punishment. From conservative talk show host Sean Hannity to former basketball champion Charles Barkley, some leaped to Peterson’s defense, claiming that many parents discipline their children using switches. While much is made over a racial divide in the use of discipline-by-force, the truth is, in large numbers, Americans of nearly every type approve of some form of corporal punishment.
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They use it, they underwent it, and they don’t see any harm in it. America is a nation of spankers. Yes, approval for spanking has dropped in the last 20 years, as the timeout has risen in popularity. But if you’re an American of any race other than Asian, odds are you were spanked as a child.
Does it actually work to change behavior? And, most critically, is there any kind of discipline that works better? Alan Kazdin, who has spent 30 years studying techniques that will tame children who set fires, punch their principals, and run away as well as kids whose rebellions are slightly less damaging. And the research findings, says Kazdin, professor of Psychology and Child Psychiatry at Yale University and Director of the Yale Parenting Center, are overwhelming. Depending on how frequent and how aggressive, spanking can be destructive long before it becomes a clear cut case of child abuse. In recent years, for example, studies have found that children who are spanked frequently have lower IQs, are more aggressive, and are more likely to abuse drugs and alcohol.
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California study, infants who were often spanked subsequently had higher spikes in the stress hormone cortisol when faced with a new experience, like being left with a stranger, compared to children who weren’t spanked. Studies show that spankings result in higher production of stress hormones, which can make children less able to deal with other stresses. These findings have held up even when other common risk factors for these behaviors—such as poverty, ethnic background, and whether a child is temperamentally aggressive—are taken into account. It can change the immune system. Adults who as children were spanked regularly die at a younger age of cancer, heart disease, and respiratory illnesses.
Spanking doesn’t change a child’s behavior, and even if it did, there are so many hazards to it that it’s still not an appropriate method of discipline. If studies of any other phenomenon had such consistent scientific results, they’d be adopted wholesale. Elizabeth Gershoff, associate professor or human development and family sciences at the University of Texas at Austin, who studies how discipline affects children’s development. But Americans don’t trust research when it comes to parenting and family life. We don’t like to be told how to run our families.
One salient example of how resistant Americans are to what they perceive as government interference in family matters is the opposition of the U. Congress to ratifying a 1989 UN treaty on the rights of children, one of the most rapidly and widely adopted human rights pacts ever. It bans child exploitation and sets up protections for children from physical and mental violence. The opposition to the treaty comes mainly from groups who assert that because it requires U.
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American sovereignty and the rights of parents to choose their religious training, prevent their daughters from having abortions or discipline their children as they see fit. Supporters argue that the treaty actually reinforces the rights of parents and guardians by recognizing them as paramount, except in cases where the child is in danger. However, the opposition is probably right about one thing: under its terms spanking could be outlawed. 100 have outlawed corporal punishment in schools.
19 states still permit the use of corporal punishment in schools, but it may be on its way out. An ABCNEWS poll in November found that even parents who approve of spanking in the home oppose it in schools. What the surveys generally don’t pick up is the most common response that researchers get when they talk to people about their discipline practices. What you hear is, I was spanked and I turned out O. Committee on Children Youth and Families. Brannon, who works with families in Ohio. We ask people to walk to the part of the room designated for each of those parenting styles, and there are a lot of defining moments.
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People start recognizing that the decision to hit their child isn’t even a choice—it’s something ingrained in them. And when we ask people who experienced a lot of physical punishment how it made them feel and if it worked, they usually say it made them angry, forced them to lie, to hide things. Studies suggest that one parenting style—authoritative—is more likely to produce kids who grow up happy and successful. Children of permissive or uninvolved parents generally have more trouble with self-control, have lower self-esteem, and don’t do as well in school or life. In general, rigidly strict parents produce children who are obedient and do well, but have low self-esteem and are more likely to be unhappy.
Some experts do argue for the reasonable use of a mild form of spanking to enforce other, nonphysical methods of discipline, such as time-out. Larzalere, professor of parenting and methodology research at Oklahoma State University, who has worked with Baumrind on several studies. Ethically, it’s not possible to conduct randomized controlled studies on spanking, and short of installing hidden cameras in American homes—which is illegal—it’s not easy to figure out what’s really happening behind closed doors. Dallas, found a way to legally eavesdrop on a group of 33 mothers and their children by strapping audio recorders to the mother’s arms and listening in for six nights as they interacted.
Most of the mothers were white, and demographically speaking, all over the map, from lower income to upper middle class and higher. They were also done with little warning—an average of 30 seconds after the child was told to stop a behavior. And the mothers weren’t calm and intentional in their discipline either. They struck out in anger and frustration.
In prior studies, parents of 2-year-olds have reported that they spank or slap their toddlers an average of 18 times a year. Based on the six days of Holden’s study, published in April 2014, these mothers would be spanking their children 18 times a week. The Holden study was small, but the idea that a spanking can escalate into abuse isn’t far-fetched. 3 times more likely to be injured enough to require medical attention than babies who weren’t hit.
They just want the behavior to stop. It’s amazing how often this happens. When you’re having all these conflicts you get worn down and tired of it, it’s easy to lash out. The other problem is that parents are unwittingly modeling the very kind of behavior they want to quash in their children. Not only are kids who are hit more likely to hit, they may experience lasting brain changes if hit hard or frequently, that can affect their mental health and IQ. A 2009 study published in the journal Neuroimage found that harsh spankings—more than 12 a year, with an implement such as a belt or paddle—led to shrinkage of gray matter in areas of the brain linked to addiction, depression, and mental health disorders in a group of 23 young adults. But you can at least get a foot in the door.
Like Larzalere, Holden says that an occasional mild spanking probably won’t result in lasting harm, but it also won’t result in lasting benefit. In his eavesdropping study, the kids who were spanked were acting up again in an average of 10 minutes. While some studies have found that spanking increases immediate compliance, there’s not a lot of evidence that it changes long-term behavior. For one thing, it teaches children what’s wrong, but not what’s right, says Kazdin. The feedback from spanking—tears and remorse—is often misinterpreted by parents.
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You wind up in what I call the punishment trap. You think it works because it stops the behavior in an instant, so it maintains hitting or shouting in your repertoire, but over the next days, weeks, and months, there’s no change in the rate of the behavior. That encourages the spankings and other punishment to escalate. When a child hits a child, we call it aggression. When a child hits an adult, we call it hostility.
When an adult hits an adult, we call it assault. When an adult hits a child, we call it discipline. Viennese psychiatrist Alfred Adler and his American counterpart Rudolf Driekurs and made popular more than 30 years ago by Jane Nelson, a child development expert and therapist—and, saliently, the mother of seven children. Catch kids being good and reward it. Instead of focusing attention on curbing the bad behavior—which can be a reward for the behavior—Kazdin teaches parents to notice and high-five good behaviors. So, for example, instead of yelling at the kids for fighting over what cartoon they’re going to watch on Saturday morning, praise them when they’re sitting quietly watching a show together. When you’re talking to your teenager, you don’t want to be effusive.