Teaching Kids to Spell: Sight Words
Academic English The English language ability required for academic achievement teaching Kids to Spell: Sight Words context-reduced situations, such as classroom lectures and textbook reading assignments. Accuracy Accuracy is the ability to recognize words correctly.
Adequate yearly progress An individual state’s measure of yearly progress toward achieving state academic standards. Adequate Yearly Progress” is the minimum level of improvement that states, school districts and schools must achieve each year. ADHD See attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Advanced phonics Strategies for decoding multisyllabic words that include morphology and information about the meaning, pronunciation, and parts of speech of words gained from knowledge of prefixes, roots, and suffixes. Alphabetic principle The concept that letters and letter combinations represent individual phonemes in written words. The Americans With Disabilities Act gives civil rights protections to individuals with disabilities similar to those provided to individuals on the basis of race, color, sex, national origin, age, and religion. It guarantees equal opportunity for individuals with disabilities in public accommodations, employment, transportation, state and local government services, and telecommunications.
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Ample opportunities for student practice Students are asked to apply what they have been taught in order to accomplish specific reading tasks. Practice should follow in a logical relationship with what has just been taught. Once skills are internalized, students are provided with more opportunities to independently implement previously learned information. Analogy Comparing two sets of words to show some common similarity between the sets.
Antonym A word opposite in meaning to another word. Attention deficit disorder is an older name for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is the inability to use skills of attention effectively. Studies suggest that five to ten percent of children, adolescents, and adults may have ADHD. Automaticity Automaticity is a general term that refers to any skilled and complex behavior that can be performed rather easily with little attention, effort, or conscious awareness. These skills become automatic after extended periods of training. With practice and good instruction, students become automatic at word recognition, that is, retrieving words from memory, and are able to focus attention on constructing meaning from the text, rather than decoding.
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B Background knowledge Forming connections between the text and the information and experiences of the reader. Base words Base words are words from which many other words are formed. For example, many words can be formed from the base word migrate: migration, migrant, immigration, immigrant, migrating, migratory. Bilingual education An educational program in which two languages are used to provide content matter instruction. Bilingual education programs vary in their length of time, and in the amount each language is used. Blending The task of combining sounds rapidly, to accurately represent the word.
Bloom’s Taxonomy A system for categorizing levels of abstraction of questions that commonly occur in educational settings. Includes the following competencies: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Central auditory processing disorder occurs when the ear and the brain do not coordinate fully. A CAPD is a physical hearing impairment, but one which does not show up as a hearing loss on routine screenings or an audiogram. The intent of using chunked text or chunking text is to give children an opportunity to practice reading phrases fluently. There is no absolute in chunking text.
Teachers should use judgment when teaching students how to chunk. Generally, slash marks are made between subject and predicate, and before and after prepositional phrases. Coaching A professional development process of supporting teachers in implementing new classroom practices by providing new content and information, modeling related teaching strategies, and offering on-going feedback as teachers master new practices. Coarticulation When saying words our mouth is always ready for the next sound to be made.
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While saying one sound, the lips, tongue, etc. Coherent instructional design A logical, sequential, plan for delivering instruction. Comprehension Understanding what one is reading, the ultimate goal of all reading activity. These programs are intended for students who are reading one or more years below grade level, and who are struggling with a broad range of reading skills. Comprehensive Intervention Programs include instructional content based on the five essential components of reading instruction integrated into a coherent instructional design.
Comprehension monitoring An awareness of one’s understanding of text being read. Comprehension questions Address the meaning of text, ranging from literal to inferential to analytical. Comprehension strategies Comprehension strategies are techiniques to teach reading comprehension, including summarization, prediction, and inferring word meanings from context. Comprehension strategy instruction Comprehensive strategy instruction is the explicit teaching of techniques that are particularly effective for comprehending text. Concept definition mapping Provides a visual framework for organizing conceptual information in the process of defining a word or concept. The framework contains the category, properties, and examples of the word or concept. Context clues Context clues are sources of information outside of words that readers may use to predict the identities and meanings of unknown words.
Context clues may be drawn from the immediate sentence containing the word, from text already read, from pictures accompanying the text, or from definitions, restatements, examples, or descriptions in the text. Continuum of word types Words can be classified by type according to their relative difficulty to decode. Typically this continuum is listed from easy to difficult, beginning with VC and CVC words that begin with continuous sounds and progressing to CCCVC and CCCVCC words. Cooperative learning Cooperative learning involves students working together as partners or in small groups on clearly defined tasks. It has been used successfully to teach comprehension strategies in content-area subjects.
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Coordinated instructional sequences Coordinated instructional sequences take into consideration how information is selected, sequenced, organized, and practiced. Coordinated instructional sequences occur within each component of reading where a logical progression of skills would be evident: easier skills are introduced before more difficult skills, so that skills build progressively. Core instruction Core Instruction is instruction provided to all students in the class, and it is usually guided by a comprehensive core reading program. Part of the core instruction is usually provided to the class as a whole, and part is provided during the small group, differentiated instruction period.
Cumulative Instruction that builds upon previously learned concepts. It is used for the purpose of providing practice with specific decoding skills and is a bridge between learning phonics and the application of phonics in independent reading. Decodable words These words contain phonic elements that were previously taught. Diagnostic Tests that can be used to measure a variety of reading, language, or cognitive skills. Although they can be given as soon as a screening test indicates a child is behind in reading growth, they will usually be given only if a child fails to make adequate progress after being given extra help in learning to read. Differentiated instruction Matching instruction to meet the different needs of learners in a given classroom.
Difficult words Some words are difficult because they contain phonic elements that have not yet been taught. Direct instruction The teacher defines and teaches a concept, guides students through its application, and arranges for extended guided practice until mastery is achieved. Direct vocabulary instruction Planned instruction to pre-teach new, important, and difficult words to ensure the quantity and quality of exposures to words that students will encounter in their reading. Direct vocabulary instruction aids reading comprehension. Dyslexia Dyslexia is a language-based disability that affects both oral and written language.
It may also be referred to as reading disability, reading difference, or reading disorder. Elkonin boxes A framework used during phonemic awareness instruction. Elkonin Boxes are sometimes referred to as Sound Boxes. When working with words, the teacher can draw one box per sound for a target word. Students push a marker into one box as they segment each sound in the word. Emergent literacy The skills, knowledge, and attitudes that are developmental precursors to conventional forms of reading and writing. Empirical research Refers to scientifically based research that applies rigorous, systematic, and objective procedures to obtain valid knowledge.
English language learners are students whose first language is not English and who are in the process of learning English. Department of Education as national-origin-minority students who are limited-English-proficient. Error correction Immediate corrective feedback during reading instruction. ESL ESL is the common acronym for English as a Second Language, an educational approach in which English language learners are instructed in the use of the English language. Explicit Explicit instruction involves direct explanation. The teacher’s language is concise, specific, and related to the objective.
Explicit instruction means that the actions of the teacher are clear, unambiguous, direct, and visible. This makes it clear what the students are to do and learn. Nothing is left to guess work. Expository text tends to be more difficult for students than narrative text because of the density of long, difficult, and unknown words or word parts. Expressive language Language that is spoken. F Fidelity of implementation The degree to which instruction follows the intent and design of the program. Five components of reading Phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension.
Flexible grouping Grouping students according to shared instructional needs and abilities and regrouping as their instructional needs change. Group size and allocated instructional time may vary among groups. Fluency Fluency is the ability to read a text accurately, quickly, and with proper expression and comprehension. Because fluent readers do not have to concentrate on decoding words, they can focus their attention on what the text means. Fluency probe An assessment for measuring fluency, usually a timed oral reading passage at the student’s instructional reading level. A query narrowly tailored to task, purpose, and audience, as in a research query that is sufficiently precise to allow a student to achieve adequate specificity and depth within the time and format constraints. Formal assessment Follows a prescribed format for administration and scoring.
Scores obtained from formal tests are standardized, meaning that interpretation is based on norms from a comparative sample of children. Frayer model An adaptation of the concept map. The framework of the Frayer Model includes: the concept word, the definition, characteristics of the concept word, examples of the concept word, and non-examples of the concept word. It is important to include both examples and non-examples, so students are able to identify what the concept word is and what the concept word is not.
Frustration level text is difficult text for the reader. Generalization The ability to use a learned skill in novel situations. Grapheme A grapheme is a letter or letter combination that spells a single phoneme. In English, a grapheme may be one, two, three, or four letters, such as e, ei, igh, or eigh.
Graphic and semantic organizers A visual framework or structure for capturing the main points of what is being read, which may include concepts, ideas, events, vocabulary, or generalizations. Graphic organizers allow ideas in text and thinking processes to become external by showing the interrelatedness of ideas, thus facilitating understanding for the reader. Graphophonemic The relationship between letters and phonemes. Guided oral reading Instructional support including immediate corrective feedback as students read orally.
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Guided practice Students practice newly learned skills with the teacher providing prompts and feedback. Homograph Words that are spelled the same but have different origins and meanings. Homophone Words that may or may not be spelled alike but are pronounced the same. I IDEA See Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Immediate intensive intervention Instruction that may include more time, more opportunities for student practice, more teacher feedback, smaller group size, and different materials. It is implemented as soon as assessment indicates that students are not making adequate progress in reading. Implicit instruction The opposite of explicit instruction.
Students discover skills and concepts instead of being explicitly taught. Important words Unknown words that are critical to passage understanding and which students are likely to encounter in the future. Independent reading level is relatively easy text for the reader. An individualized educational program describes the special education and related services specifically designed to meet the unique educational needs of a student with a disability.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act is the law that guarantees all children with disabilities access to a free and appropriate public education. Inflectional suffix In English, a suffix that expresses plurality or possession when added to a noun, tense when added to a verb, and comparison when added to an adjective and some adverbs. Informal assessment Does not follow prescribed rules for administration and scoring and has not undergone technical scrutiny for reliability and validity. Teacher-made tests, end-of-unit tests, and running records are all examples of informal assessment. Informational text Non-fiction books, also referred to as expository text, that contain facts and information. Initial instruction First line of defense to prevent reading failure for all students. A core reading program is the instructional tool used for initial instruction in Florida’s Reading First initiative.
Instructional design Instructional design in reading refers to the process of translating key learning objectives and goals into a delivery system to meet those goals. When we discuss the instructional design of a reading program, we are referring to the underlying framework of a reading program, the way the curriculum is constructed. Instructional reading level engages the student in challenging, but manageable text. Intensity Focused instruction where students are academically engaged with the content and the teacher and receive more opportunities to practice with immediate teacher feedback. Intervention instruction Intervention instruction is provided only to students who are lagging behind their classmates in the development of critical reading skills. This instruction will usually be guided by a specific intervention program that focuses on one or more of the key areas of reading development. This type of instruction is needed by only a relatively small minority of students in a class.
These programs are used to provide targeted, intensive intervention for small groups of struggling readers. ISD ISD is a common acronym for Independent School District. K K-W-L A technique used most frequently with expository text to promote comprehension. A language learning disability is a disorder that may affect the comprehension and use of spoken or written language as well as nonverbal language, such as eye contact and tone of speech, in both adults and children. Learning communities A group in which educators commit to ongoing learning experiences with a deliberate intent to transform teaching and learning at their school or within their district. A learning disability is a disorder that affects people’s ability to either interpret what they see and hear or to link information from different parts of the brain. It may also be referred to as a learning disorder or a learning difference.
Letter-sound correspondence The matching of an oral sound to its corresponding letter or group of letters. Limited English proficient is the term used by the federal government, most states, and local school districts to identify those students who have insufficient English to succeed in English-only classrooms. Listening vocabulary The words needed to understand what is heard. Literacy Literacy includes reading, writing, and the creative and analytical acts involved in producing and comprehending texts. Literal comprehension Understanding of the basic facts that the student has read.
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A local education agency is a public board of education or other public authority within a state that maintains administrative control of public elementary or secondary schools in a city, county, township, school district or other political subdivision of a state. M Main idea The central thought or message of a reading passage. Metacognition An awareness of one’s own thinking processes and how they work. The process of consciously thinking about one’s learning or reading while actually being engaged in learning or reading. For example, good readers use metacognition before reading when they clarify their purpose for reading and preview the text. Modeling Teacher overtly demonstrates a strategy, skill, or concept that students will be learning. Monitoring comprehension Readers who monitor their comprehension know when they understand what they read and when they do not.
Students are able to use appropriate “fix-up” strategies to resolve problems in comprehension. An investigation intended to address a relatively expansive query using several sources over an extended period of time, as in a few weeks of instructional time. Morpheme A morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit of language. It can be a whole word or a part of a word such as a prefix or suffix. For example, the word ungrateful contains three morphemes: un, grate, and ful. Morphemic analysis An analysis of words formed by adding prefixes, suffixes or other meaningful word units to a base word.
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Morphemic relationship The morphemic relationship is the relationship between one morpheme and another. Morphophonology Morphophonology is using a word’s letter patterns to help determine, in part, the meaning and pronunciation of a word. Multiple intelligences The theory of multiple intelligences suggests that the traditional notion of intelligence, based on I. Instead, it proposes eight different intelligences to account for a broader range of human potential in children and adults. These intelligences are: linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist. Multisensory structured language education Multisensory structured language education uses visual, auditory, and kinesthetic-tactile cues simultaneously to enhance memory and learning. Multisyllabic words These are words with more than one syllable.
A systematic introduction of prefixes, suffixes, and multisyllabic words should occur throughout a reading program. The average number of syllables in the words students read should increase steadily throughout the grades. N Naming speed Naming speed is the rate at which a child can recite “overlearned” stimuli such as letters and single-digit numbers. Narrative text A story about fictional or real events. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 is the most recent reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education act of 1965. The act contains President George W. Bush’s four basic education reform principles: stronger accountability for results, increased flexibility and local control, expanded options for parents, and an emphasis on teaching methods based on scientifically-based research.