Time-tested teachers

Time-tested teachers

7th October 2018OffByRiseNews

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Jenelle Evans is fighting back after the grandmother of her son, Kaiser Griffith, filed for emergency temporary custody of the 3-year-old. News obtained legal documents submitted by Doris Davidson on Sept. Jenelle’s daughter Ensley Eason tested positive for marijuana at the time of her birth in January 2017. As a result, Davidson also claims DSS opened an investigation that found both Jenelle and her fiancé David Eason had marijuana in their system. Additionally, Kaiser’s grandmother reported “several occasions” in which she witnessed “bruising and markings on the minor child that are unusual and more than normal” than she thinks a child should have. The Plaintiff and Defendant are at this time not fit and proper persons to provide for the care custody and control of the minor child,” the documents stated. Jenelle—who is no stranger to child custody battles—shared the following statement exclusively with E!

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News: “Our lawyers are talking today. Doris threw her own son under the bus by admitting that he has pending felonies and possibly on drugs. The MTV reality star also believes her estranged mother, Barbara Evans, played a part in influencing Davidson to seek emergency custody. Evans continued, “I can tell you that they are allegations, mostly driven by my mom. Our lawyers are working out a new agreement.

News has reached out to Davidson’s legal representatives for comment. Davidson does reference Jace Evans’ grandmother in the documents, in which she states Barbara expressed “concern” over Kaiser’s well-being, citing a May 2017 incident in which the toddler and Jace, 8, were locked out of the house on a “very hot day. Davidson then alleges that David uses “inappropriate and excessive discipline” against Kaiser, in addition to spanking him “very hard” and “leaving marks. In May 2017, Jenelle and Barbara came to a custody agreement regarding her first son, Jace. The mutually agreed upon visitation schedule awarded Jenelle custody of the child on weekends, holidays and during the summer season. News at the time, “I’m not restricted to when my mom says I can have my son anymore and at the moment that’s all I care about. He will be home one day but today wasn’t the day, sadly.

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Hemos especializado nuestro sitio para tu región! We have specialized our website for your region. Would you like to switch to our Latino edition? Check out my NGSS links page for great resources to target the new science standards! Click to make the text smaller. An introduction to the work of Stephen Krashen This page contains an introduction to the work of Stephen Krashen, Emeritus Professor of Linguistics and Education at the University of Southern California. It was written in advance of Dr.

October 2009 to lead the school’s two-day professional development. The page as shown initially contains a brief synopsis of Krashen’s work in the fields of second language learning, free voluntary reading, bilingual education, whole language, cognitive development and writing. Each synopsis is followed by comments and a summary of implications for mainstream teachers of ESL students. Teachers who are interested in further information about the various issues can click at the end of each section. Second language learning Krashen believes that there is no fundamental difference between the way we acquire our first language and our subsequent languages. Foreign languages are acquired in the same way.

Time-tested teachers

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From this he developed the theory that all languages share an underlying system named Universal Grammar. Skinner’s claim that language develops in response to environmental influences. However, they suggest that language learning depends on general cognitive faculties rather than on a specific language acquisition mechanism. The Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis There are two ways of developing language ability: by acquisition and by learning. Acquisition is a sub-conscious process, as in the case of a child learning its own language or an adult ‘picking up’ a second language simply by living and working in a foreign country. Learning is the conscious process of developing a foreign language through language lessons and a focus on the grammatical features of that language. More on the Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis According to Krashen learned language cannot be turned into acquisition.

It is pointless spending a lot of time learning grammar rules, since this will not help us become better users of the language in authentic situations. At most, the knowledge we gain about the language will help us in direct tests of that knowledge or in situations when we have time to self-correct, as in the editing of a piece of writing. The Natural Order Hypothesis Language is acquired in a predictable order by all learners. This order does not depend on the apparent simplicity or complexity of the grammatical features involved. The natural order of acquisition cannot be influenced by direct teaching of features that the learner is not yet ready to acquire.

More on the Natural Order Hypothesis It is claimed that the natural order of acquisition is very similar for a native-English child learning its own language and for an adult learning English as a foreign language. Clearly, this is possible in the correction of written work. It is much more difficult when engaging in regular talk. More on the Monitor Hypothesis Krashen states that it is often difficult to use the monitor correctly since the rules of a language can be extremely complex. In Stevick’s terminology, JM in the cartoon is suffering from “lathophobic aphasia”, an “unwillingness to speak for fear of making a mistake”.

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See Krashen at: Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning . Comprehensible input is the necessary but also sufficient condition for language acquisition to take place. It requires no effort on the part of the learner. More on the Input Hypothesis Krashen now refers to this as the Comprehension Hypothesis. 1, where i is the current state or stage of language proficiency. The Affective Filter Hypothesis Comprehensible input will not result in language acquisition if that input is filtered out before it can reach the brain’s language processing faculties. The filtering may occur because of anxiety, poor self-esteem or low motivation.

More on the Affective Filter Hypothesis Learners with a low affective filter will not only be efficient language acquirers of the comprehensible input they receive. They are also more likely to interact with others, unembarrassed by making mistakes for example, and thus increase the amount of that input. Comments Krashen’s Monitor Model has attracted enormous attention from psychologists, fellow linguists and educators. His theories have been criticised for a perceived lack of scientific rigour and for his downplaying of the importance of language output and grammar instruction. Nevertheless, the Monitor Model has been extremely influential in language teaching pedagogy, and it is the basis for ESL instruction at Frankfurt International School.

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Teachers, of course, are concerned with the practical worth of a particular theory and are generally oblivious or impervious to such ivory-tower discussions. Whether or not Krashen’s theories of language acquisition meet certain scientific criteria, it is indisputable that they have been widely and successfully applied in the classroom. Subsequent critiques of Krashen have focused more on the pedagogical implications of his theories, for example his claim that comprehensible input is a sufficient condition for language acquisition. A further criticism of Krashen’s theories is levelled at his repudiation of grammar instruction. He states that his hypotheses ” . Anecdote 1: We were joined a while ago by an Italian boy who had a little German but no English. Anecdote 2: A year or so later a grade 7 Hungarian student joined FIS with no English at all – she did not even know the numbers to twenty.

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Although she was the only Hungarian-speaker in the school, she possessed an outgoing personality and a positive approach. She soon had a group of friends who helped her both in and out of class to cope with the social and academic demands of school life. More on the current state of SLA The field of linguistics has expanded rapidly in the last 4-5 decades, and SLA research is currently divided into two camps: the sociolinguists and the psycholinguists. Sociolinguists are concerned with how language acquisition occurs in the various situations in which the learner finds him- or herself. SLA theories propounded by both socio- and psycholinguists. Implications for mainstream teachers Firstly, if teachers make their classroom instruction comprehensible, then not only will the ESL students learn the subject content but they will be acquiring English at the same time.

All teachers of non-native English students should regard themselves as teachers of language too. Secondly, ESL students are often anxious in mainstream classes. Teachers should seek ways to reduce the students’ affective filter in order that they can profit from the comprehensible input they receive. Free voluntary reading ‘may be the most powerful educational tool in language education’. It serves to increase literacy and to develop vocabulary. Extensive voluntary reading provides non-native students with large doses of comprehensible input with a low affective filter, and thus is a major factor in their general language acquisition.

Students who read more do better on a wide variety of tests. Reading is the most significant factor in the development of vocabulary. Reading is the major factor in the development of writing competence. Students who read extensively have a greater general knowledge.

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Here is a useful online summary of Krashen’s recent work on FVR. Krashen is a passionate advocate for libraries and was asked to submit a report on the issue to the Obama-Biden Education Policy Working Group. He states that libraries are even more important for children growing up without books at home. SSR is not the most productive use of instructional time. More comments on free voluntary reading ESL teachers at FIS Frankfurt International School have students read for about 10 minutes in class on a regular basis. We have no objective data showing how effective this is in terms of students becoming better or more avid readers.

However, students, almost without exception, look forward to their silent reading. They are often so inundated with other work that they have no time to read for pleasure at home. Implications for mainstream teachers It is desirable that students develop the habit of regular reading in each discipline, even if teachers prefer not to use instructional time to enable this. They may wish, therefore, to assign self-selected reading as occasional homework and have students report back on anything they feel worthy of sharing with the rest of the class.

Teachers can collaborate with the librarian to stock the library and the classrooms with interesting materials. Reading proficiency correlates so highly with academic success that every effort should be made to create a reading culture in the school and in the classroom. Research findings in applied linguistics and reading research consistently show a strong correlation between reading proficiency and academic success at all ages, from the primary school right through to university level: students who read a lot and who understand what they read usually attain good grades. Bilingual education Recent decades have seen a dramatic increase in the number of non-native speakers of English in the classrooms of Great Britain, the USA and other English-speaking countries. Educators in this period have been debating how best to meet the special needs of these students. In broad terms there are two opposing approaches: 1.

More on bilingual education Immersion or English-only are common names for educational approaches that are based in the simple, and somewhat intuitive belief, that ‘the more English, the better’. The mother-tongue has no role to play. Furthermore, this academic proficiency facilitates the acquisition of English because it helps to make what students hear and read more comprehensible to them. There is a large variety of bilingual educational models. The class remains together for all of their lessons, some of which are in English and the remaining ones in Spanish.

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The Acquisition of Academic English by Children in Two-Way Programs: What does the Research Say? Cummins is another major proponent of bilingualism. He has written extensively not only about its pedagogical advantages but also about its cultural, cognitive and political benefits. Comments Bilingual educational is a highly contentious issue, particularly in the USA.

The strong arguments from research that mother-tongue support for non-native English students is beneficial for both their English language and their academic development have not been found convincing by much of the general public. Politicians have seen the issue as a way to gain voter popularity. More comments on bilingual education The most protracted debate about the efficacy of bilingual education has taken place in California, where private initiatives pass into law if they gain majority support in a referendum. Under the auspices of the 1968 Bilingual Education Act many Californian schools offered bilingual programmes for their increasing Hispanic populations.

In essence, the law reflects the belief that setting measurable goals and assessing regularly via standardized tests whether these goals are being met is the basis of effective education. Unsurprisingly, there is dispute as to the success of NCLB. Supporters have pointed, for example, to improved test scores in a number of areas. Krashen also objects to standardized tests because of their expense. Schools should stock their libraries with interesting materials rather than spend money on costly tests that tell teachers little they do not already know about their students. Implications for mainstream teachers The dispute about optimal programme support for ESL students does not have a direct impact on mainstream teachers. Bilingual education – more implications for mainstream teachers A simple example of how the mother tongue can be used to make input comprehensible is the student who reads about the Storming of the Bastille in her native language before listening to a lecture on the topic in class or reading about it in her history textbook.

It is helpful if teachers regularly encourage students to make use of this strategy. 1 are available for use in language 2. As Cummins states: “Conceptual knowledge developed in one language helps to make input in the other language comprehensible. As we saw above, Krashen states that anxiety is a filter of comprehensible input. ESL students who know that they will be allowed or encouraged to use their mother tongue are likely to be less anxious than those who know that its use is prohibited. They will thus be generally more receptive to the English they hear.

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Should I let ESL students talk in their native language in my classroom? Whole Language Krashen is a strong advocate of the whole language approach to the teaching of reading, and has written many articles in support of it. In essence, whole language proponents claim that children learn to read most enjoyably and efficiently by exposure to interesting stories that are made comprehensible to them through pictures and discussions. More on Whole Language Whole language is the term for a conglomeration of holistic theories of learning, not only of reading. The whole language approach became a major educational paradigm in the latter decades of the 20th century.

Phonics has made a comeback, particularly in the US, where it has been facilitated by the policies enacted under the No Child Left Behind programme in 2002. Constant media reports about falling literacy standards have alarmed parents, many of whom vehemently protest if they consider their child’s school to have chosen the wrong approach. The issue is further complicated by the involvement of publishing houses which stand to make large profits if school districts can be persuaded to buy their comprehensive sets of phonics-based materials. More comments on Whole language Reading proficiency is in many ways the primary academic skill. Children who are poor readers usually struggle badly in school. It is no surprise, therefore that there has been such an enormous amount of research on the issue, and a similar amount of debate on the pedagogical implications of the findings.

Implications for mainstream teachers While this debate clearly has considerable implications for teachers of young children, it has little or no direct impact on mainstream teachers at upper school level, the intended audience of this web page. It is a confusion of cause and effect to teach facts and thinking skills in order that students may then solve real problems. Instead, it is the case, Krashen says, that learning is the result of working on real problems. Writing that synthesizes knowledge gained from various sources, incorporates personal insights, and presents these in a structured way is an excellent example of a problem-solving activity that leads to cognitive development. 4 stages: preparation, incubation, illumination and verification. There is more on the influence of writing on cognitive development in the following section.

Comments Krashen’s theory of cognitive development is based in the holistic paradigm. This paradigm has at its core the belief that teaching is most effective when it engages students in authentic, complex tasks rather than discrete skill-building. The holistic approach, which became popular in the 1960s, is now held responsible by some for what they claim to be a general decline in educational standards. This reactionary movement is often referred to as Back to Basics. More comments on cognitive development A common term for the purported decline in academic expectations is dumbing down. Chalk-face educators are more likely to favour holistic approaches than politicians, journalists, parents and some school administrators.

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Unfortunately, it is often the latter who shout the louder and have more influence. Anecdotal confirmation of the hypothesis that we get smart by solving problems is provided by the webpage author’s son. In the course of playing Pokemon games by himself and with his friends he built up an enormous amount of knowledge about the hundreds of Pokemon characters, their interrelationships, weapons, strength and weaknesses, and so on. In other words, problems that interest the students and that naturally entail researching, thinking, discussing, reading and writing or presenting. Curricula that have more breadth than depth often do not allow for the solving of real problems. In the effort to cover a large amount of ground there is simply no time for the 4 stages of creativity to take place.