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A 1,400-year old mass grave of decapitated prisoners of war has been discovered in the Mayan city of Uxul in Mexico. The 7th-century grave contained dismembered skeletons of 24 victims, thought to have been US 4×400 women into final after runoff of war, in what was once a water reservoir. The finding provides the first physical evidence that the violent murder of opponents, which was so often shown in Maya art, was in fact practiced.
The only other archaeological evidence of such a dismemberment of victims was in the site of Cancuén, Guatemala. Due to being covered by clay, the bones were so well-preserved that it was possible to distinguish the age and sex of 15 of the 24 individuals. They included 13 men and two women who were aged from 18 to 42 at the time of their death. Analysis of teeth and bones showed that several of the deceased suffered from malnutrition and had lost several teeth to tooth decay.
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Some of the dead had tooth inserts of jade. The scientists interpreted this as a sign of high social status. The bones also provided clues about how each victim met their violent death. I observed complete legs, whose bones were still in the correct anatomical articulation from the hip, to the femur, the kneecaps until the smallest toe-bones,’ said Mr Seefeld. Apart from that, I also observed other detached body parts such as severed heads, complete hands, detached feet.
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After cleaning the bones, Mr Seefeld found traces of the violent killing, such as blunt force trauma on the foreheads and traces of sharp blades, which had cut away parts of skulls and had severed the heads. This observation excluded the possibility that this mass grave was a so-called secondary burial, in which the bones of the deceased are placed at a new location’, he said. Archaeologists from the University of Boon had been excavating in the historical Maya city of Uxul in Campeche for the past five years to uncover the origins and the collapse of regional states in the Maya lowlands. The researchers do not yet know whether they are prisoners of war from another Mayan city or were sacrificed in Uxul or nobles from Uxul itself.
Mr Seefeld is yet to excavate the western half of the water reservoir, and is hopeful more artefacts will be found. The project was headed by Dr Nikolai Grube and Dr Kai Delvendahl from the University of Bonn, as well as Dr Antonio Benavides from the Mexican National Institute of Anthropology and History. The comments below have not been moderated. We are no longer accepting comments on this article. This February 2018 image made available by NASA on Thursday, April 19, 2018 shows the Lagoon Nebula, about 4,000 light-years away from the Earth, with the star Herschel 36 at center.
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President Trump Can’t Declare War, Only Congress Can. CDC Warns Against Eating Any Kind of Romaine Lettuce After E. TIME may receive compensation for some links to products and services on this website. Offers may be subject to change without notice. Type or paste a DOI name into the text box. Long title An act to enforce the fifteenth amendment of the Constitution of the United States, and for other purposes. Signed into law by President Lyndon B.
Fannie Lou Hamer, Rosa Parks, Coretta Scott King, César E. League of United Latin American Citizens v. Northwest Austin Municipal Utility District No. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 is a landmark piece of federal legislation in the United States that prohibits racial discrimination in voting. The Act contains numerous provisions that regulate elections. The Act’s “general provisions” provide nationwide protections for voting rights. Section 2 is a general provision that prohibits every state and local government from imposing any voting law that results in discrimination against racial or language minorities.
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The Act also contains “special provisions” that apply to only certain jurisdictions. A core special provision is the Section 5 preclearance requirement, which prohibits certain jurisdictions from implementing any change affecting voting without receiving preapproval from the U. The coverage formula was originally designed to encompass jurisdictions that engaged in egregious voting discrimination in 1965, and Congress updated the formula in 1970 and 1975. As initially ratified, the United States Constitution granted each state complete discretion to determine voter qualifications for its residents. After the Civil War, the three Reconstruction Amendments were ratified and limited this discretion. To enforce the Reconstruction Amendments, Congress passed the Enforcement Acts in the 1870s.
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The Acts criminalized the obstruction of a citizen’s voting rights and provided for federal supervision of the electoral process, including voter registration. However, in 1875 the Supreme Court struck down parts of the legislation as unconstitutional in United States v. After the Reconstruction Era ended in 1877, enforcement of these laws became erratic, and in 1894, Congress repealed most of their provisions. Southern states generally sought to disenfranchise racial minorities during and after Reconstruction. From 1868 to 1888, electoral fraud and violence throughout the South suppressed the African-American vote. In the 1950s, the Civil Rights Movement increased pressure on the federal government to protect the voting rights of racial minorities. Although these acts helped empower courts to remedy violations of federal voting rights, strict legal standards made it difficult for the Department of Justice to successfully pursue litigation.
For example, to win a discrimination lawsuit against a state that maintained a literacy test, the Department needed to prove that the rejected voter-registration applications of racial minorities were comparable to the accepted applications of whites. Congress responded to rampant discrimination against racial minorities in public accommodations and government services by passing the Civil Rights Act of 1964. However, despite lobbying from civil rights leaders, the Act did not prohibit most forms of voting discrimination. Congress had passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and Johnson was concerned that championing voting rights would endanger his Great Society reforms by angering Southern Democrats in Congress. Their efforts culminated in protests in Alabama, particularly in the city of Selma, where County Sheriff Jim Clark’s police force violently resisted African-American voter registration efforts. Our strategy, as usual, was to force the U.
Our slogan for this drive was “One Man, One Vote. In January 1965, Martin Luther King, Jr. The next day, King was released and a letter he wrote addressing voting rights, “Letter From A Selma Jail”, appeared in The New York Times. With the nation paying increasing attention to Selma and voting rights, President Johnson reversed his decision to delay voting rights legislation, and on February 6, he announced he would send a proposal to Congress. However, he did not reveal the proposal’s content or when it would come before Congress.
On February 18 in Marion, Alabama, state troopers violently broke up a nighttime voting-rights march during which officer James Bonard Fowler shot and killed young African-American protester Jimmie Lee Jackson, who was unarmed and protecting his mother. March 7 SCLC and SNCC began the Selma to Montgomery marches in which Selma residents proceeded to march to Alabama’s capital, Montgomery, to highlight voting rights issues and present Governor George Wallace with their grievances. In the wake of the events in Selma, President Johnson, addressing a televised joint session of Congress on March 15, called on legislators to enact expansive voting rights legislation. He concluded his speech with the words “we shall overcome”, a major theme of the Civil Rights Movement. The legislation that Johnson referred to was the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which was introduced in Congress two days later while civil rights leaders, now under the protection of federal troops, led a march of 25,000 people from Selma to Montgomery. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 was introduced in Congress on March 17, 1965 as S.
Attorney General Katzenbach to draft the bill’s language. Johnson worried that Southern Democrats would filibuster the legislation, as they had opposed other civil rights efforts. He enlisted Dirksen to help gain Republican support. Given Dirksen’s key role in helping Katzenbach draft the legislation, it became known informally as the “Dirksenbach” bill.
46 Democratic and 20 Republican cosponsors. The scope of the coverage formula was a matter of contentious Congressional debate. November 1, 1964 or cast a ballot in the November 1964 presidential election. This formula reached few jurisdictions outside the Deep South.
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To appease legislators who felt that the bill unfairly targeted Southern jurisdictions, the bill included a general prohibition on racial discrimination in voting that applied nationwide. The bill also included provisions allowing a covered jurisdiction to “bail out” of coverage by proving in federal court that it had not used a “test or device” for a discriminatory purpose or with a discriminatory effect during the 5 years preceding its bailout request. Additionally, the bill included a “bail in” provision under which federal courts could subject discriminatory non-covered jurisdictions to remedies contained in the special provisions. Additionally, by excluding poll taxes from the definition of “tests or devices”, the coverage formula did not reach Texas or Arkansas, mitigating opposition from those two states’ influential congressional delegations. Nonetheless, with the support of liberal committee members, Kennedy’s amendment to prohibit poll taxes passed by a 9-4 vote. On April 22, the full Senate started debating the bill. Dirksen spoke first on the bill’s behalf, saying that “legislation is needed if the unequivocal mandate of the Fifteenth Amendment is to be enforced and made effective, and if the Declaration of Independence is to be made truly meaningful.
After lengthy debate, Ted Kennedy’s amendment to prohibit poll taxes also failed 49-45 on May 11. However, the Senate agreed to include a provision authorizing the Attorney General to sue any jurisdiction, covered or non-covered, to challenge its use of poll taxes. English-illiterate citizens who had attained at least a sixth-grade education in a non-English-speaking school also passed by 48-19. Southern legislators offered a series of amendments to weaken the bill, all of which failed. On May 25, the Senate voted for cloture by a 70-30 vote, thus overcoming the threat of filibuster and limiting further debate on the bill. Senators representing Southern states voted against it. Chair of the House Judiciary Committee, introduced the Voting Rights Act in the House of Representatives on March 19, 1965 as H.
The bill included two amendments from subcommittee: a penalty for private persons who interfered with the right to vote, and a prohibition of all poll taxes. It would have allowed the Attorney General to appoint federal registrars after receiving 25 serious complaints of discrimination about a jurisdiction, and it would have imposed a nationwide ban on literacy tests for persons who could prove they attained a sixth-grade education. 7896 as a serious threat to passing the Voting Rights Act. 7896 because the Voting Rights Act would legitimately ensure that African Americans could vote. His statement alienated most supporters of H.
7896, and the bill failed on the House floor by a 171-248 vote on July 9. The chambers appointed a conference committee to resolve differences between the House and Senate versions of the bill. Senate version allowed the Attorney General to sue states that used poll taxes to discriminate, while the House version outright banned all poll taxes. Initially, the committee members were stalemated. On August 6, President Johnson signed the Act into law with King, Rosa Parks, John Lewis, and other civil rights leaders in attendance at the signing ceremony.
Congress enacted major amendments to the Act in 1970, 1975, 1982, 1992, and 2006. Each amendment coincided with an impending expiration of some or all of the Act’s special provisions. Originally set to expire by 1970, Congress repeatedly reauthorized the special provisions in recognition of continuing voting discrimination. Congress extended the coverage formula and special provisions tied to it, such as the Section 5 preclearance requirement, for five years in 1970, seven years in 1975, and 25 years in both 1982 and 2006. In 1970 and 1975, Congress also expanded the reach of the coverage formula by supplementing it with new 1968 and 1972 trigger dates. In addition to reauthorizing the original special provisions and expanding coverage, Congress amended and added several other provisions to the Act.
For instance, Congress expanded the original ban on “tests or devices” to apply nationwide in 1970, and in 1975, Congress made the ban permanent. Separately, in 1975 Congress expanded the Act’s scope to protect language minorities from voting discrimination. Congress defined “language minority” to mean “persons who are American Indian, Asian American, Alaskan Natives or of Spanish heritage. Congress also enacted a bilingual election requirement in Section 203, which requires election officials in certain jurisdictions with large numbers of English-illiterate language minorities to provide ballots and voting information in the language of the language minority group. Originally set to expire after 10 years, Congress reauthorized Section 203 in 1982 for seven years, expanded and reauthorized it in 1992 for 15 years, and reauthorized it in 2006 for 25 years.